Novel Phylogenetic Algorithm to Monitor Human Tropism in Egyptian H5N1-HPAIV Reveals Evolution toward Efficient Human-to-Human Transmission
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{"title"=>"Novel Phylogenetic Algorithm to Monitor Human Tropism in Egyptian H5N1-HPAIV Reveals Evolution toward Efficient Human-to-Human Transmission", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vladimir R.", "last_name"=>"Perovic", "scopus_author_id"=>"14054540500"}, {"first_name"=>"Claude P.", "last_name"=>"Muller", "scopus_author_id"=>"55758464800"}, {"first_name"=>"Henry L.", "last_name"=>"Niman", "scopus_author_id"=>"57059447900"}, {"first_name"=>"Nevena", "last_name"=>"Veljkovic", "scopus_author_id"=>"8737352200"}, {"first_name"=>"Ursula", "last_name"=>"Dietrich", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006163144"}, {"first_name"=>"Dusan D.", "last_name"=>"Tosic", "scopus_author_id"=>"16204192100"}, {"first_name"=>"Sanja", "last_name"=>"Glisic", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005776793"}, {"first_name"=>"Veljko", "last_name"=>"Veljkovic", "scopus_author_id"=>"56219201300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876823956", "sgr"=>"84876823956", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0061572", "pmid"=>"23658611", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"368819837"}, "id"=>"c1ceaad4-afb8-3ea0-b04b-adf9b69610ab", "abstract"=>"Years of endemic infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A subtype H5N1 virus in poultry and high numbers of infections in humans provide ample opportunity in Egypt for H5N1-HPAIV to develop pandemic potential. In an effort to better understand the viral determinants that facilitate human infections of the Egyptian H5N1-HPAIVvirus, we developed a new phylogenetic algorithm based on a new distance measure derived from the informational spectrum method (ISM). This new approach, which describes functional aspects of the evolution of the hemagglutinin subunit 1 (HA1), revealed a growing group G2 of H5N1-HPAIV in Egypt after 2009 that acquired new informational spectrum (IS) properties suggestive of an increased human tropism and pandemic potential. While in 2006 all viruses in Egypt belonged to the G1 group, by 2011 these viruses were virtually replaced by G2 viruses. All of the G2 viruses displayed four characteristic mutations (D43N, S120(D,N), (S,L)129Δ and I151T), three of which were previously reported to increase binding to the human receptor. Already in 2006-2008 G2 viruses were significantly (p<0.02) more often found in humans than expected from their overall prevalence and this further increased in 2009-2011 (p<0.007). Our approach also identified viruses that acquired additional mutations that we predict to further enhance their human tropism. The extensive evolution of Egyptian H5N1-HPAIV towards a preferential human tropism underlines an urgent need to closely monitor these viruses with respect to molecular determinants of virulence.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/novel-phylogenetic-algorithm-monitor-human-tropism-egyptian-h5n1hpaiv-reveals-evolution-toward-effic", "reader_count"=>33, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "China"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044734"], "description"=>"<p>Mutations that increase binding of H5N1-HPAIV HA1 to the human α2,6-linked sialic acid.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "binding", "h5n1-hpaiv", "ha1", "sialic"], "article_id"=>692507, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mutations_that_increase_binding_of_H5N1_HPAIV_HA1_to_the_human_945_2_6_linked_sialic_acid_/692507", "title"=>"Mutations that increase binding of H5N1-HPAIV HA1 to the human α2,6-linked sialic acid.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044733"], "description"=>"<p>Residue positions correspond the H5N1 numbering.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "h5n1-hpaiv", "ha1", "groups", "g1", "g2", "mutations"], "article_id"=>692506, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Residues_that_are_specific_for_H5N1_HPAIV_HA1_groups_G1_and_G2_Figure_1A_and_mutations_that_significantly_increase_the_A_0_236_A_0_076_ratio_/692506", "title"=>"Residues that are specific for H5N1-HPAIV HA1 groups G1 and G2 (Figure 1A) and mutations that significantly increase the A(0.236)/A(0.076) ratio.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044725"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of mutations P74S, H110R, A127T, F143Y, K153D, S188K, S223(N,I), S234P, G272S, N275S from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572#pone-0061572-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>) on IS of HA1 from human H5N1 virus A/Egypt/N04434/2010. (a) IS of the unmutated HA1 protein, (b) IS of HA1 with mutations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "mutations", "informational", "spectra", "egyptian", "h5n1-hpaiv"], "article_id"=>692500, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_mutations_on_informational_spectra_of_the_Egyptian_H5N1_HPAIV_A_Egypt_N04434_2010_/692500", "title"=>"Effect of mutations on informational spectra of the Egyptian H5N1-HPAIV A/Egypt/N04434/2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044721"], "description"=>"<p>(a) The average values of A(0.236)/A(0.076) for G1 and G2 viruses. (b) Distribution of G1 and G2 viruses by years. (c) The average values of A(0.236)/A(0.076) by years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "ratios", "years", "egyptian", "h5n1-hpaiv"], "article_id"=>692497, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_A_0_236_A_0_076_ratios_by_years_for_Egyptian_H5N1_HPAIV_isolated_during_2006_8211_2011_/692497", "title"=>"Distribution of A(0.236)/A(0.076) ratios by years for Egyptian H5N1-HPAIV isolated during 2006–2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044748", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044749", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044752", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044754", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044757", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044759", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044762", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044764", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044765"], "description"=>"<div><p>Years of endemic infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A subtype H5N1 virus in poultry and high numbers of infections in humans provide ample opportunity in Egypt for H5N1-HPAIV to develop pandemic potential. In an effort to better understand the viral determinants that facilitate human infections of the Egyptian H5N1-HPAIVvirus, we developed a new phylogenetic algorithm based on a new distance measure derived from the informational spectrum method (ISM). This new approach, which describes functional aspects of the evolution of the hemagglutinin subunit 1 (HA1), revealed a growing group G2 of H5N1-HPAIV in Egypt after 2009 that acquired new informational spectrum (IS) properties suggestive of an increased human tropism and pandemic potential. While in 2006 all viruses in Egypt belonged to the G1 group, by 2011 these viruses were virtually replaced by G2 viruses. All of the G2 viruses displayed four characteristic mutations (D43N, S120(D,N), (S,L)129Δ and I151T), three of which were previously reported to increase binding to the human receptor. Already in 2006–2008 G2 viruses were significantly (p<0.02) more often found in humans than expected from their overall prevalence and this further increased in 2009–2011 (p<0.007). Our approach also identified viruses that acquired additional mutations that we predict to further enhance their human tropism. The extensive evolution of Egyptian H5N1-HPAIV towards a preferential human tropism underlines an urgent need to closely monitor these viruses with respect to molecular determinants of virulence.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "phylogenetic", "algorithm", "tropism", "egyptian", "h5n1-hpaiv", "reveals", "human-to-human"], "article_id"=>692514, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Novel_Phylogenetic_Algorithm_to_Monitor_Human_Tropism_in_Egyptian_H5N1_HPAIV_Reveals_Evolution_toward_Efficient_Human_to_Human_Transmission_/692514", "title"=>"Novel Phylogenetic Algorithm to Monitor Human Tropism in Egyptian H5N1-HPAIV Reveals Evolution toward Efficient Human-to-Human Transmission", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044716"], "description"=>"<p>(a) A/chicken/Egypt/R1/2006, (b) A/Egypt/2763-NAMRU3/2006, (c) A/chicken/Egypt/1029/2010, (d) A/Egypt/N04434/2010.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "informational", "spectra", "h5n1-hpaiv", "poultry", "humans"], "article_id"=>692495, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_informational_spectra_of_H5N1_HPAIV_from_poultry_and_humans_isolated_2006_8211_2010_/692495", "title"=>"Comparison of informational spectra of H5N1-HPAIV from poultry and humans isolated 2006–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044719"], "description"=>"<p>(a) The phylogenetic tree constructed using the IS-based method. (b) Phylogenetic tree constructed by the neighbor-joining method.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "ism-based", "phylogenetic", "h5n1-hpaiv"], "article_id"=>692496, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MSA_based_and_ISM_based_phylogenetic_analysis_of_H5N1_HPAIV_isolated_in_Egypt_/692496", "title"=>"MSA-based and ISM-based phylogenetic analysis of H5N1-HPAIV isolated in Egypt.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044732"], "description"=>"<p>Number of G2 specific amino acid substitutions which are acquired before and after 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "g2", "amino", "substitutions", "acquired"], "article_id"=>692505, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_G2_specific_amino_acid_substitutions_which_are_acquired_before_and_after_2009_/692505", "title"=>"Number of G2 specific amino acid substitutions which are acquired before and after 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044730"], "description"=>"<p>The electron-ion interaction potential (EIIP) used to encode amino acids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "electron-ion", "encode", "amino"], "article_id"=>692503, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_electron_ion_interaction_potential_EIIP_used_to_encode_amino_acids_/692503", "title"=>"The electron-ion interaction potential (EIIP) used to encode amino acids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044728"], "description"=>"<p>Mutations which are potentially important for human tropism of Egyptian H5N1-HPAIV are included to test the sensitivity of MSA- and ISM-based approach to mutations. (a) The MSA tree and (b) the ISM tree for all 311 unmutated H5N1-HPAIV HA1 sequences belonging to G1 viruses; (c) the MSA tree of panel (a) in which each second sequence was mutated and (d) the ISM tree which corresponds to the mutated and unmutated sequences presented in panel (c). H5N1-HPAIV HA1 sequences selected for mutations D43N, S120D, S129Δ and I151T are in red.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "msa-based", "ism-based", "phylogenetic"], "article_id"=>692502, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_sensitivity_of_MSA_based_and_ISM_based_phylogenetic_tree_to_mutations_/692502", "title"=>"Comparison of sensitivity of MSA-based and ISM-based phylogenetic tree to mutations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044723"], "description"=>"<p>The total average A(0.236)/A(0.076) values and the number of human cases in Egypt between 2006 and 2010 are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viral evolution", "Viral transmission and infection", "Virulence factors and mechanisms", "epidemiology", "Molecular epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary virology", "egyptian", "h5n1-hpaiv"], "article_id"=>692499, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vladimir R. Perovic", "Claude P. Muller", "Henry L. Niman", "Nevena Veljkovic", "Ursula Dietrich", "Dusan D. Tosic", "Sanja Glisic", "Veljko Veljkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061572.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_A_0_236_A_0_076_values_of_Egyptian_H5N1_HPAIV_and_human_cases_/692499", "title"=>"Correlation between A(0.236)/A(0.076) values of Egyptian H5N1-HPAIV and human cases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:41:39"}

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Relative Metric

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