Quantifying Climatological Ranges and Anomalies for Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystems
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{"title"=>"Quantifying Climatological Ranges and Anomalies for Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystems", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jamison M.", "last_name"=>"Gove", "scopus_author_id"=>"17134989300"}, {"first_name"=>"Gareth J.", "last_name"=>"Williams", "scopus_author_id"=>"35103870500"}, {"first_name"=>"Margaret A.", "last_name"=>"McManus", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103028000"}, {"first_name"=>"Scott F.", "last_name"=>"Heron", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004098794"}, {"first_name"=>"Stuart A.", "last_name"=>"Sandin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602623660"}, {"first_name"=>"Oliver J.", "last_name"=>"Vetter", "scopus_author_id"=>"34878025000"}, {"first_name"=>"David G.", "last_name"=>"Foley", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103079191"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23637939", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0061974", "sgr"=>"84876343538", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876343538", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368746883"}, "id"=>"1bf5761c-be5c-3f24-8539-65c8b67d7ec8", "abstract"=>"Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic-biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will help identify reef ecosystems most exposed to environmental stress as well as systems that may be more resistant or resilient to future climate change.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/quantifying-climatological-ranges-anomalies-pacific-coral-reef-ecosystems", "reader_count"=>113, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>31, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>31}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Australia"=>2, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028929"], "description"=>"<p>Individual locations are color-coded by region. Regions include Northwestern Hawaiian, Hawaíi, Mariana, Equatorial and Samoa. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone-0061974-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> provides additional information pertaining to each location, including the location name for each of the location codes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "ecosystems", "Marine biology", "corals", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean properties", "Ocean temperature", "Physical oceanography", "oceans", "Pacific Ocean", "highlighting", "41", "islands", "atolls", "coral", "reef"], "article_id"=>685912, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jamison M. Gove", "Gareth J. Williams", "Margaret A. McManus", "Scott F. Heron", "Stuart A. Sandin", "Oliver J. Vetter", "David G. Foley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_highlighting_the_41_islands_and_atolls_that_comprise_the_coral_reef_ecosystems_of_the_U_S_Pacific_/685912", "title"=>"Map highlighting the 41 islands and atolls that comprise the coral reef ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:38:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028933"], "description"=>"<p>A) Unfiltered data with contaminated information associated with shallow-water bottom reflectance; B) data filtered using the 30-m bathymetric contour (black line), although contaminated information still remains as a result of bottom reflectance; C) fully cleaned data set using an additional data removal filter (gray line) that is everywhere perpendicular to the 30-m contour, removing all contaminated data associated with bottom reflectance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "ecosystems", "Marine biology", "corals", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean properties", "Ocean temperature", "Physical oceanography", "oceans", "Pacific Ocean", "composite", "concentrations", "pearl", "hermes", "reef", "northwestern", "hawaiian", "september"], "article_id"=>685916, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jamison M. Gove", "Gareth J. Williams", "Margaret A. McManus", "Scott F. Heron", "Stuart A. Sandin", "Oliver J. Vetter", "David G. Foley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Monthly_composite_of_chlorophyll_a_concentrations_at_Pearl_and_Hermes_Reef_in_the_Northwestern_Hawaiian_Region_for_September_2003_/685916", "title"=>"Monthly composite of chlorophyll-<i>a</i> concentrations at Pearl and Hermes Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian Region for September 2003.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:38:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028935"], "description"=>"<p>Values for each data inclusion zone were calculated by taking the long-term mean of each pixel from July 2002 to May 2011, and then averaging over all pixels within each zone. The numbers on the <i>x</i>-axis are associated with sequentially expanding data inclusion zone, separated by 0.0295° (∼3.27 km). The data inclusion zones are exclusive and nonoverlapping, and color-coded and numbered based on the inset of Pearl and Hermes Reef. The black line represents the 30-m isobath and the gray line represents the additional data removal filter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "ecosystems", "Marine biology", "corals", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean properties", "Ocean temperature", "Physical oceanography", "oceans", "Pacific Ocean", "concentrations", "inclusion", "error-free", "pearl", "hermes"], "article_id"=>685918, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jamison M. Gove", "Gareth J. Williams", "Margaret A. McManus", "Scott F. Heron", "Stuart A. Sandin", "Oliver J. Vetter", "David G. Foley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chlorophyll_a_concentrations_mg_m_8722_3_177_standard_error_by_data_inclusion_zone_from_the_error_free_data_set_Fig_2_at_Pearl_and_Hermes_Reef_/685918", "title"=>"Chlorophyll-a concentrations (mg m<sup>−3</sup>±standard error) by data inclusion zone from the error-free data set (Fig. 2) at Pearl and Hermes Reef.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:38:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028936"], "description"=>"<p>Regions indicated in panel A are the same for panels B –D. Please see Fig. 1 as a reference for individual island and atoll locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "ecosystems", "Marine biology", "corals", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean properties", "Ocean temperature", "Physical oceanography", "oceans", "Pacific Ocean", "means", "irradiance", "regions", "coral", "reef"], "article_id"=>685919, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jamison M. Gove", "Gareth J. Williams", "Margaret A. McManus", "Scott F. Heron", "Stuart A. Sandin", "Oliver J. Vetter", "David G. Foley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_long_term_means_in_A_SST_B_wave_energy_C_chlorophyll_a_and_D_irradiance_across_each_of_the_regions_that_comprise_the_coral_reef_ecosystems_of_the_U_S_Pacific_/685919", "title"=>"Map of long-term means in A) SST, B) wave energy, C) chlorophyll-<i>a</i> and D) irradiance across each of the regions that comprise the coral reef ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:38:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028937"], "description"=>"<p>Island- and atoll-scale metrics for A) SST, B) wave energy, C) chlorophyll-<i>a</i> and D) irradiance. In each of the panels (A – D), the black bar represents the climatological range, with the top and bottom of the bar representing the upper and lower climatological range limits, respectively. The yellow and blue bars signify average annual positive and negative anomalies, respectively, represented here as the average annual percentage of time above (positive) the upper climatological range limit and below (negative) the lower climatological range limit. Islands and atoll names are presented as a three-letter code (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone-0061974-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for full location names), grouped and color-coded by region (see Fig. 1 for map of locations), and oriented by decreasing latitude from left to right (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone-0061974-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for specific positions). The asterisks represent the islands that are oriented based on geographic proximity to other islands and atolls, as opposed to strict latitudinal orientation. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone.0061974.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Tables S1</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone.0061974.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone.0061974.s007\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone.0061974.s008\" target=\"_blank\">S4</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone.0061974.s009\" target=\"_blank\">S5</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone.0061974.s010\" target=\"_blank\">S6</a> for climatology and anomaly values presented in this figure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "ecosystems", "Marine biology", "corals", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean properties", "Ocean temperature", "Physical oceanography", "oceans", "Pacific Ocean", "ranges", "anomalies", "pacific", "coral", "reef"], "article_id"=>685920, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jamison M. Gove", "Gareth J. Williams", "Margaret A. McManus", "Scott F. Heron", "Stuart A. Sandin", "Oliver J. Vetter", "David G. Foley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Climatological_ranges_and_average_annual_anomalies_for_U_S_Pacific_coral_reef_ecosystems_/685920", "title"=>"Climatological ranges and average annual anomalies for U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028940"], "description"=>"<p>Island and atoll names are presented as a three-letter code (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone-0061974-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for full location names) and grouped and color-coded by region (see Fig. 1 for map of locations). The direction of loading for each of the parameters is indicated by the black line, with the direction of the line pointed towards increasing values. Similarity Profile (SIMPROF) results are represented by dashed lines and indicate islands with similar environmental forcings (<i>p</i><0.0001) with respect to each of the metrics. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone.0061974.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> for climatological range limit and long-term mean values presented in this figure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "ecosystems", "Marine biology", "corals", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean properties", "Ocean temperature", "Physical oceanography", "oceans", "Pacific Ocean", "climatological"], "article_id"=>685922, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jamison M. Gove", "Gareth J. Williams", "Margaret A. McManus", "Scott F. Heron", "Stuart A. Sandin", "Oliver J. Vetter", "David G. Foley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principle_component_analysis_PCA_of_the_A_upper_climatological_range_limit_B_long_term_mean_and_C_lower_climatological_range_limit_for_all_environmental_forcings_SST_wave_energy_chlorophyll_a_irradiance_/685922", "title"=>"Principle component analysis (PCA) of the A) upper climatological range limit, B) long-term mean and C) lower climatological range limit for all environmental forcings: SST, wave energy, chlorophyll-<i>a</i>, irradiance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:38:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028942"], "description"=>"<p>All locations are grouped by regions, indicated in bold. <i>Island Name</i> is the name of the island or atoll. <i>Island</i> is the three-letter code used in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone-0061974-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 1</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone-0061974-g005\" target=\"_blank\">5</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974#pone-0061974-g006\" target=\"_blank\">6</a>. <i>Island Type</i> is based on primary geological make-up. Closed atoll designation is where a majority of the atoll is enclosed by emergent or semi-emergent reef. <i>Latitude</i> and <i>Longitude</i> are in degrees north and east, respectively, based on the center point of each island and atoll. <i>Land Area</i> and <i>Reef Area</i> are shown in square kilometers. <i>Reef Area</i> is calculated from the shoreline to the 30-m isobath.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "ecosystems", "Marine biology", "corals", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean properties", "Ocean temperature", "Physical oceanography", "oceans", "Pacific Ocean", "41", "islands", "atolls", "coral", "reef"], "article_id"=>685924, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jamison M. Gove", "Gareth J. Williams", "Margaret A. McManus", "Scott F. Heron", "Stuart A. Sandin", "Oliver J. Vetter", "David G. Foley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Table_of_information_for_each_of_the_41_islands_and_atolls_that_comprise_the_coral_reef_ecosystems_of_the_U_S_Pacific_/685924", "title"=>"Table of information for each of the 41 islands and atolls that comprise the coral reef ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:38:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028951", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028953", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028956", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028958", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028960", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028961", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028962", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028963", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028964", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028965", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1028966"], "description"=>"<div><p>Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic–biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-<i>a</i> and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-<i>a</i> was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-<i>a</i> concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-<i>a</i> concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will help identify reef ecosystems most exposed to environmental stress as well as systems that may be more resistant or resilient to future climate change.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "ecosystems", "Marine biology", "corals", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean properties", "Ocean temperature", "Physical oceanography", "oceans", "Pacific Ocean", "climatological", "ranges", "anomalies", "pacific", "coral", "reef"], "article_id"=>685932, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jamison M. Gove", "Gareth J. Williams", "Margaret A. McManus", "Scott F. Heron", "Stuart A. Sandin", "Oliver J. Vetter", "David G. Foley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.s011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantifying_Climatological_Ranges_and_Anomalies_for_Pacific_Coral_Reef_Ecosystems_/685932", "title"=>"Quantifying Climatological Ranges and Anomalies for Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystems", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:38:52"}

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