Characterization and Generation of Male Courtship Song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
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{"title"=>"Characterization and Generation of Male Courtship Song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Justin P.", "last_name"=>"Bredlau", "scopus_author_id"=>"55955712500"}, {"first_name"=>"Yasha J.", "last_name"=>"Mohajer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55955227300"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy M.", "last_name"=>"Cameron", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101641434"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen M.", "last_name"=>"Kester", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004513160"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael L.", "last_name"=>"Fine", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202778259"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368766887", "sgr"=>"84876455392", "pmid"=>"23630622", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876455392", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062051", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"63c7476f-8f65-3b49-9cfb-90e61f327cd3", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Male parasitic wasps attract females with a courtship song produced by rapid wing fanning. Songs have been described for several parasitic wasp species; however, beyond association with wing fanning, the mechanism of sound generation has not been examined. We characterized the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and investigated the biomechanics of sound production.\\n\\nMETHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Courtship songs were recorded using high-speed videography (2,000 fps) and audio recordings. The song consists of a long duration amplitude-modulated \"buzz\" followed by a series of pulsatile higher amplitude \"boings,\" each decaying into a terminal buzz followed by a short inter-boing pause while wings are stationary. Boings have higher amplitude and lower frequency than buzz components. The lower frequency of the boing sound is due to greater wing displacement. The power spectrum is a harmonic series dominated by wing repetition rate ∼220 Hz, but the sound waveform indicates a higher frequency resonance ∼5 kHz. Sound is not generated by the wings contacting each other, the substrate, or the abdomen. The abdomen is elevated during the first several wing cycles of the boing, but its position is unrelated to sound amplitude. Unlike most sounds generated by volume velocity, the boing is generated at the termination of the wing down stroke when displacement is maximal and wing velocity is zero. Calculation indicates a low Reynolds number of ∼1000.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Acoustic pressure is proportional to velocity for typical sound sources. Our finding that the boing sound was generated at maximal wing displacement coincident with cessation of wing motion indicates that it is caused by acceleration of the wing tips, consistent with a dipole source. The low Reynolds number requires a high wing flap rate for flight and predisposes wings of small insects for sound production.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/characterization-generation-male-courtship-song-cotesia-congregata-hymenoptera-braconidae", "reader_count"=>17, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030653", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030654", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030655"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Male parasitic wasps attract females with a courtship song produced by rapid wing fanning. Songs have been described for several parasitic wasp species; however, beyond association with wing fanning, the mechanism of sound generation has not been examined. We characterized the male courtship song of <i>Cotesia congregata</i> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and investigated the biomechanics of sound production.</p><p>Methods and Principal Findings</p><p>Courtship songs were recorded using high-speed videography (2,000 fps) and audio recordings. The song consists of a long duration amplitude-modulated “buzz” followed by a series of pulsatile higher amplitude “boings,” each decaying into a terminal buzz followed by a short inter-boing pause while wings are stationary. Boings have higher amplitude and lower frequency than buzz components. The lower frequency of the boing sound is due to greater wing displacement. The power spectrum is a harmonic series dominated by wing repetition rate ∼220 Hz, but the sound waveform indicates a higher frequency resonance ∼5 kHz. Sound is not generated by the wings contacting each other, the substrate, or the abdomen. The abdomen is elevated during the first several wing cycles of the boing, but its position is unrelated to sound amplitude. Unlike most sounds generated by volume velocity, the boing is generated at the termination of the wing down stroke when displacement is maximal and wing velocity is zero. Calculation indicates a low Reynolds number of ∼1000.</p><p>Conclusions and Significance</p><p>Acoustic pressure is proportional to velocity for typical sound sources. Our finding that the boing sound was generated at maximal wing displacement coincident with cessation of wing motion indicates that it is caused by acceleration of the wing tips, consistent with a dipole source. The low Reynolds number requires a high wing flap rate for flight and predisposes wings of small insects for sound production.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "biophysics", "biomechanics", "Computational biology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Entomology", "characterization", "courtship"], "article_id"=>687265, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Justin P. Bredlau", "Yasha J. Mohajer", "Timothy M. Cameron", "Karen M. Kester", "Michael L. Fine"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Characterization_and_Generation_of_Male_Courtship_Song_in_Cotesia_congregata_Hymenoptera_Braconidae_/687265", "title"=>"Characterization and Generation of Male Courtship Song in <i>Cotesia congregata</i> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-04-22 02:01:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030638"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Complete song. (B) Expanded selection of initial buzz. (C) Expanded selection of four boings illustrating the initial high amplitude component followed by a lower amplitude terminal buzz and short gap.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "biophysics", "biomechanics", "Computational biology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Entomology", "courtship", "buzz", "followed"], "article_id"=>687251, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Justin P. Bredlau", "Yasha J. Mohajer", "Timothy M. Cameron", "Karen M. Kester", "Michael L. Fine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oscillograph_of_typical_male_courtship_song_of_Cotesia_congregata_with_a_buzz_followed_by_boings_/687251", "title"=>"Oscillograph of typical male courtship song of <i>Cotesia congregata</i> with a buzz followed by boings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-22 02:00:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030639"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Sound pressure level re: 20 µPa at 2–3 mm (dB; mean ± SE) and (B) fundamental frequency (Hz; mean ± SE) of initial pre-boing buzz, boing, and terminal buzz components. Different letters indicate significant differences (p<0.01). <i>N</i> = 21 wasps.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "biophysics", "biomechanics", "Computational biology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Entomology", "courtship"], "article_id"=>687252, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Justin P. Bredlau", "Yasha J. Mohajer", "Timothy M. Cameron", "Karen M. Kester", "Michael L. Fine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sound_pressure_level_and_fundamental_frequency_of_the_male_courtship_song_of_Cotesia_congregata_/687252", "title"=>"Sound pressure level and fundamental frequency of the male courtship song of <i>Cotesia congregata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-22 02:00:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030640"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Boing, (B) terminal buzz, and (C) background noise.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "biophysics", "biomechanics", "Computational biology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Entomology", "spectra", "components", "courtship"], "article_id"=>687253, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Justin P. Bredlau", "Yasha J. Mohajer", "Timothy M. Cameron", "Karen M. Kester", "Michael L. Fine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_spectra_of_components_of_the_male_courtship_song_of_Cotesia_congregata_/687253", "title"=>"Frequency spectra of components of the male courtship song of <i>Cotesia congregata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-22 02:00:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030641"], "description"=>"<p>Vertical wing angle at the beginning and end of successive wing strokes during a typical boing (vertical plane toward the substrate = 0°) of the male courtship song of <i>Cotesia congregata</i>. The first arrow indicates the first wing stroke producing audible sound and the second arrow indicates the downstroke producing the highest amplitude sound.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "biophysics", "biomechanics", "Computational biology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Entomology"], "article_id"=>687254, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Justin P. Bredlau", "Yasha J. Mohajer", "Timothy M. Cameron", "Karen M. Kester", "Michael L. Fine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Change_in_wing_angle_over_time_during_a_single_boing_/687254", "title"=>"Change in wing angle over time during a single boing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-22 02:00:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030642"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Wing downstroke displacement (mean ± SE), (B) maximum downstroke velocity, (C) abdominal angle (horizontal = 0°), and (D) sound amplitude during successive wing strokes during a boing averaged from frame by frame analysis of the courtship song produced by three males of <i>Cotesia congregata</i>. Strokes from boings with more than 14 pulses were deleted so that <i>N</i> was always 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "biophysics", "biomechanics", "Computational biology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Entomology", "wasp", "amplitude"], "article_id"=>687255, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Justin P. Bredlau", "Yasha J. Mohajer", "Timothy M. Cameron", "Karen M. Kester", "Michael L. Fine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_wasp_movement_and_sound_amplitude_of_each_wing_stroke_during_a_single_boing_/687255", "title"=>"Measurements of wasp movement and sound amplitude of each wing stroke during a single boing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-22 02:00:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030644"], "description"=>"<p><b>Above:</b> High-speed camera photographs (2,000 fps) of one wing cycle during a boing produced by downward (a–e) and upward (f–j) wing movement from a male <i>Cotesia congregata</i> displaying to an immobilized female. Each image represents 0.5 ms. Note that wings are less clear in the middle of the down and upsweep (images b–d and g–i) due to rapid movement. <b>Below:</b> Oscillograph of one cycle of a boing with wing positions in a-j keyed to time of occurrence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "biophysics", "biomechanics", "Computational biology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Entomology", "boing", "matched"], "article_id"=>687257, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Justin P. Bredlau", "Yasha J. Mohajer", "Timothy M. Cameron", "Karen M. Kester", "Michael L. Fine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Images_of_a_single_wing_stroke_during_a_boing_matched_to_sound_amplitude_/687257", "title"=>"Images of a single wing stroke during a boing matched to sound amplitude.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-22 02:00:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030645"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Down-stroke displacement, (B) wing angular velocity, (C) abdominal angle related to sound amplitude, and (D) down-stroke displacement to abdominal position during consecutive wing strokes of a single boing in the male courtship song of <i>Cotesia congregata.</i> The horizontal arrows mark the first wing stroke; the vertical arrow in (D) marks the stroke producing the greatest sound amplitude. Hysteresis in the figures indicates that although wing velocity and abdomen elevation increase with sound amplitude at the beginning and decrease at the end of a boing, they are not causative.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "biophysics", "biomechanics", "Computational biology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Entomology", "amplitude", "wasp"], "article_id"=>687258, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Justin P. Bredlau", "Yasha J. Mohajer", "Timothy M. Cameron", "Karen M. Kester", "Michael L. Fine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_of_sound_amplitude_to_measurements_of_wasp_wing_and_body_movement_/687258", "title"=>"Relationship of sound amplitude to measurements of wasp wing and body movement.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-22 02:00:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1030646"], "description"=>"<p>The wings are supported by a microscope slide (vertical line near the wing base). The terminal fold used in calculations of wing speed is indicated by the arrow.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "biophysics", "biomechanics", "Computational biology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Entomology", "wings"], "article_id"=>687259, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Justin P. Bredlau", "Yasha J. Mohajer", "Timothy M. Cameron", "Karen M. Kester", "Michael L. Fine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062051.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>155, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dorsal_view_of_one_pair_of_wings_of_a_male_Cotesia_congregata_/687259", "title"=>"Dorsal view of one pair of wings of a male <i>Cotesia congregata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-22 02:00:59"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 449, 572, 676, 775, 866, 955, 1041, 1127, 1213, 1290, 1370, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Veterinary science", "average_usage"=>[313, 571, 709, 825, 944, 1048, 1145, 1261, 1354, 1434, 1524, 1599, 1684]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[254, 440, 558, 675, 785, 883, 972, 1061, 1154, 1248, 1336, 1414, 1489]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Equipment", "average_usage"=>[246, 440, 558, 647, 746, 842, 937, 1028, 1116, 1191, 1253, 1348, 1420]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[253, 430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[258, 449, 572, 679, 775, 866, 956, 1041, 1124, 1211, 1291, 1371, 1437]}]}
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