Low-Canopy Seagrass Beds Still Provide Important Coastal Protection Services
Publication Date
May 28, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Marjolijn J. A. Christianen, Jim Van Belzen, Peter M. J. Herman, Marieke M. Van Katwijk, et al
Volume
8
Issue
5
Pages
e62413
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062413
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0062413
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23723969
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665780
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23723969
Web of Science
000319733000004
Scopus
84878378433
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/lowcanopy-seagrass-beds-still-provide-important-coastal-protection-services
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Low-Canopy Seagrass Beds Still Provide Important Coastal Protection Services", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marjolijn J A", "last_name"=>"Christianen", "scopus_author_id"=>"9736789900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jim", "last_name"=>"van Belzen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55199347900"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter M J", "last_name"=>"Herman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201563427"}, {"first_name"=>"Marieke M.", "last_name"=>"van Katwijk", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602915855"}, {"first_name"=>"Leon P M", "last_name"=>"Lamers", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003439068"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter J M", "last_name"=>"van Leent", "scopus_author_id"=>"55984330900"}, {"first_name"=>"Tjeerd J.", "last_name"=>"Bouma", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004623576"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84878378433", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062413", "pui"=>"369024874", "pmid"=>"23723969", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878378433", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "arxiv"=>"2260"}, "id"=>"9e0dfcc5-7fe8-3489-b8c4-7a55b23e2874", "abstract"=>"One of the most frequently quoted ecosystem services of seagrass meadows is their value for coastal protection. Many studies emphasize the role of above-ground shoots in attenuating waves, enhancing sedimentation and preventing erosion. This raises the question if short-leaved, low density (grazed) seagrass meadows with most of their biomass in belowground tissues can also stabilize sediments. We examined this by combining manipulative field experiments and wave measurements along a typical tropical reef flat where green turtles intensively graze upon the seagrass canopy. We experimentally manipulated wave energy and grazing intensity along a transect perpendicular to the beach, and compared sediment bed level change between vegetated and experimentally created bare plots at three distances from the beach. Our experiments showed that i) even the short-leaved, low-biomass and heavily-grazed seagrass vegetation reduced wave-induced sediment erosion up to threefold, and ii) that erosion was a function of location along the vegetated reef flat. Where other studies stress the importance of the seagrass canopy for shoreline protection, our study on open, low-biomass and heavily grazed seagrass beds strongly suggests that belowground biomass also has a major effect on the immobilization of sediment. These results imply that, compared to shallow unvegetated nearshore reef flats, the presence of a short, low-biomass seagrass meadow maintains a higher bed level, attenuating waves before reaching the beach and hence lowering beach erosion rates. We propose that the sole use of aboveground biomass as a proxy for valuing coastal protection services should be reconsidered.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lowcanopy-seagrass-beds-still-provide-important-coastal-protection-services", "reader_count"=>196, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>58, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>46, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>58, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>46, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Engineering"=>11, "Environmental Science"=>64, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>90, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>11, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>11}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>11}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>90}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>64}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>6}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1551888"], "description"=>"<p>Sediment levels in unvegetated gaps compared to levels in the seagrass meadow at T<sub>0</sub> for two treatments: gaps exposed to waves (black circles) or exposed to waves reduced by wave bunkers (white circles). Seagrass stabilizes sediment both (<b>A</b>) directly after a storm and (<b>B</b>) 4 weeks after a storm. The inlay shows the setup of a bunker to reduce wave energy to seagrass and unvegetated gaps behind (left of) the bunkers. Significant differences between stations are indicated by different letters, and between wave exposed and wave-reduced plots by stars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Coastal ecology", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "seagrass", "sediment"], "article_id"=>1072085, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Marjolijn J. A. Christianen", "Jim van Belzen", "Peter M. J. Herman", "Marieke M. van Katwijk", "Leon P. M. Lamers", "Peter J. M. van Leent", "Tjeerd J. Bouma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062413.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_seagrass_presence_on_sediment_stabilization_/1072085", "title"=>"The effect of seagrass presence on sediment stabilization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 09:32:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1551906"], "description"=>"<p>Sediment erosion occurs when bed shear stress (force per unit area of the flow acting on the bed) exceeds a critical bed shear stress (τb > τcrit). (<b>A</b>) A typical depth gradient of a nearshore habitat where waves break above the coral reef, are then further reduced in the surf zone and “swash” onto the beach. Sediment stabilization by seagrass (green line) increases sediment bed levels compared to a situation with seagrass (yellow). (<b>B</b>) As a consequence of the reduction of the water depth by sediment stabilization of seagrass (green line), more wave energy is attenuated while travelling towards the shore compared to unvegetated areas (yellow), and less wave energy can reach the shore in the surf zone. This highlights the importance of seagrass with respect to coastal defense. (<b>C</b>) In the grazed seagrass meadow with short leaves and low-biomass, the low structural complexity of shoots in combination with the relative high root and rhizome biomass increases the critical bed shear stress that is needed for erosion (τcrit.).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Coastal ecology", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "erosion", "nearshore", "seagrass", "canopy", "shear"], "article_id"=>1072100, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Marjolijn J. A. Christianen", "Jim van Belzen", "Peter M. J. Herman", "Marieke M. van Katwijk", "Leon P. M. Lamers", "Peter J. M. van Leent", "Tjeerd J. Bouma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062413.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_model_showing_how_erosion_is_decreased_along_a_nearshore_seagrass_bed_with_a_minimal_canopy_due_to_the_combination_of_increased_critical_shear_stress_and_resulting_shallowness_/1072100", "title"=>"Conceptual model showing how erosion is decreased along a nearshore seagrass bed with a minimal canopy due to the combination of increased critical shear stress and resulting shallowness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 09:32:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1551904"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Turtle exclosure. (B) Difference in sediment bed level between grazed and ungrazed seagrass strips for the three stations (A, B, C) after 2 months protection by the turtle exclosure. The difference in leaf length of the canopy in turtle exclosures was a factor 2.6 longer (117.8±16.6 mm) than in grazed meadows (45.8±11.6 mm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Coastal ecology", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "canopy", "sediment"], "article_id"=>1072097, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Marjolijn J. A. Christianen", "Jim van Belzen", "Peter M. J. Herman", "Marieke M. van Katwijk", "Leon P. M. Lamers", "Peter J. M. van Leent", "Tjeerd J. Bouma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062413.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_canopy_length_on_sediment_stabilization_/1072097", "title"=>"Effect of canopy length on sediment stabilization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 09:32:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1551878"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Aerial photo of the field site showing the locations of the stations, the seagrass bed on the reef flat in the subtidal nearshore area (light blue), and the coral drop off (transition to dark blue). See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062413#pone.0062413-Christianen1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a> for a more elaborate map. Waves are coming predominantly from the north (right). (<b>B</b>) Depth profile at increasing distance from the beach. Location of stations are indicated including their mean water depths.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Coastal ecology", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "depth-profile"], "article_id"=>1072074, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Marjolijn J. A. Christianen", "Jim van Belzen", "Peter M. J. Herman", "Marieke M. van Katwijk", "Leon P. M. Lamers", "Peter J. M. van Leent", "Tjeerd J. Bouma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062413.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_and_depth_profile_of_the_experimental_site_/1072074", "title"=>"Location and depth-profile of the experimental site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 09:32:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1551907"], "description"=>"<p>Means with their standard deviations and maximum significant wave heights are given for normal conditions (n = 2945, “normal”  =  periods without storms) and during the storm (n = 195). Wave attenuation values less than 0 indicate wave shoaling.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Coastal ecology", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "shear", "cross-shore", "seagrass"], "article_id"=>1072101, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Marjolijn J. A. Christianen", "Jim van Belzen", "Peter M. J. Herman", "Marieke M. van Katwijk", "Leon P. M. Lamers", "Peter J. M. van Leent", "Tjeerd J. Bouma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062413.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_measured_significant_wave_height_H_s_peak_wave_period_T_z_and_bed_shear_stress_BSS_along_a_cross_shore_seagrass_profile_Fig_1_/1072101", "title"=>"Summary of the measured significant wave height (H<sub>s</sub>), peak wave period (T<sub>z</sub>) and bed shear stress (BSS) along a cross-shore seagrass profile (Fig. 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 09:32:05"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Marine biology", "average_usage"=>[379, 624, 751, 898, 1019, 1162, 1280, 1377, 1482, 1611, 1750, 1853, 1936, 1987]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geology", "average_usage"=>[338, 522, 664, 773, 911, 1046, 1140, 1236, 1318, 1410, 1496, 1596, 1683, 1755]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}]}
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