Elemental Markers in Elasmobranchs: Effects of Environmental History and Growth on Vertebral Chemistry
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{"title"=>"Elemental Markers in Elasmobranchs: Effects of Environmental History and Growth on Vertebral Chemistry", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wade D.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"15073478400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jessica A.", "last_name"=>"Miller", "scopus_author_id"=>"12243706000"}, {"first_name"=>"Selina S.", "last_name"=>"Heppell", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701541192"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369963980", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062423", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885082577", "pmid"=>"24098320", "sgr"=>"84885082577"}, "id"=>"eefde237-e011-3145-ae83-7095c398569a", "abstract"=>"Differences in the chemical composition of calcified skeletal structures (e.g. shells, otoliths) have proven useful for reconstructing the environmental history of many marine species. However, the extent to which ambient environmental conditions can be inferred from the elemental signatures within the vertebrae of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, rays) has not been evaluated. To assess the relationship between water and vertebral elemental composition, we conducted two laboratory studies using round stingrays, Urobatis halleri, as a model species. First, we examined the effects of temperature (16°, 18°, 24°C) on vertebral elemental incorporation (Li/Ca, Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Zn/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca). Second, we tested the relationship between water and subsequent vertebral elemental composition by manipulating dissolved barium concentrations (1x, 3x, 6x). We also evaluated the influence of natural variation in growth rate on elemental incorporation for both experiments. Finally, we examined the accuracy of classifying individuals to known environmental histories (temperature and barium treatments) using vertebral elemental composition. Temperature had strong, negative effects on the uptake of magnesium (DMg) and barium (DBa) and positively influenced manganese (DMn) incorporation. Temperature-dependent responses were not observed for lithium and strontium. Vertebral Ba/Ca was positively correlated with ambient Ba/Ca. Partition coefficients (DBa) revealed increased discrimination of barium in response to increased dissolved barium concentrations. There were no significant relationships between elemental incorporation and somatic growth or vertebral precipitation rates for any elements except Zn. Relationships between somatic growth rate and DZn were, however, inconsistent and inconclusive. Variation in the vertebral elemental signatures of U. halleri reliably distinguished individual rays from each treatment based on temperature (85%) and Ba exposure (96%) history. These results support the assumption that vertebral elemental composition reflects the environmental conditions during deposition and validates the use of vertebral elemental signatures as natural markers in an elasmobranch. Vertebral elemental analysis is a promising tool for the study of elasmobranch population structure, movement, and habitat use.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/elemental-markers-elasmobranchs-effects-environmental-history-growth-vertebral-chemistry", "reader_count"=>40, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1220865"], "description"=>"<p>Mean ± standard error of partition coefficients (D<sub>Me</sub>) for (A) lithium, (B) magnesium, (C) manganese, (D) zinc, (E) strontium, and (F) barium by treatment and mean tank temperature. Black circles represent 15°C treatments, grey circles 18°C treatments, and open circles 24°C treatments. Significant responses of D<sub>Me</sub> to temperature are indicated by (*).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elemental"], "article_id"=>811917, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wade D. Smith", "Jessica A. Miller", "Selina S. Heppell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062423.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_temperature_treatment_on_elemental_partitioning_/811917", "title"=>"Influence of temperature treatment on elemental partitioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-01 01:31:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1220864"], "description"=>"<p>Mean ± standard error of element to calcium ratios for water and vertebral samples. Black circles represent 15°C treatments, grey circles 18°C treatments, and open circles 24°C treatments. (A) lithium, (B) magnesium, (C) manganese, (D) zinc, (E) strontium, and (F) barium. Element to calcium ratios were log<sub>10</sub>-transformed. Significant temperature effects are indicated by (*).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vertebral", "elemental", "ratios"], "article_id"=>811916, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wade D. Smith", "Jessica A. Miller", "Selina S. Heppell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062423.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_water_and_vertebral_elemental_ratios_by_temperature_treatment_/811916", "title"=>"Relationships between water and vertebral elemental ratios by temperature treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-01 01:31:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1220869", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1220870"], "description"=>"<div><p>Differences in the chemical composition of calcified skeletal structures (e.g. shells, otoliths) have proven useful for reconstructing the environmental history of many marine species. However, the extent to which ambient environmental conditions can be inferred from the elemental signatures within the vertebrae of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, rays) has not been evaluated. To assess the relationship between water and vertebral elemental composition, we conducted two laboratory studies using round stingrays, <i>Urobatis halleri</i>, as a model species. First, we examined the effects of temperature (16°, 18°, 24°C) on vertebral elemental incorporation (Li/Ca, Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Zn/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca). Second, we tested the relationship between water and subsequent vertebral elemental composition by manipulating dissolved barium concentrations (1x, 3x, 6x). We also evaluated the influence of natural variation in growth rate on elemental incorporation for both experiments. Finally, we examined the accuracy of classifying individuals to known environmental histories (temperature and barium treatments) using vertebral elemental composition. Temperature had strong, negative effects on the uptake of magnesium (D<sub>Mg</sub>) and barium (D<sub>Ba</sub>) and positively influenced manganese (D<sub>Mn</sub>) incorporation. Temperature-dependent responses were not observed for lithium and strontium. Vertebral Ba/Ca was positively correlated with ambient Ba/Ca. Partition coefficients (D<sub>Ba</sub>) revealed increased discrimination of barium in response to increased dissolved barium concentrations. There were no significant relationships between elemental incorporation and somatic growth or vertebral precipitation rates for any elements except Zn. Relationships between somatic growth rate and D<sub>Zn</sub> were, however, inconsistent and inconclusive. Variation in the vertebral elemental signatures of <i>U. halleri</i> reliably distinguished individual rays from each treatment based on temperature (85%) and Ba exposure (96%) history. These results support the assumption that vertebral elemental composition reflects the environmental conditions during deposition and validates the use of vertebral elemental signatures as natural markers in an elasmobranch. Vertebral elemental analysis is a promising tool for the study of elasmobranch population structure, movement, and habitat use.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["markers", "vertebral"], "article_id"=>811921, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wade D. Smith", "Jessica A. Miller", "Selina S. Heppell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062423.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062423.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>23, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elemental_Markers_in_Elasmobranchs_Effects_of_Environmental_History_and_Growth_on_Vertebral_Chemistry_/811921", "title"=>"Elemental Markers in Elasmobranchs: Effects of Environmental History and Growth on Vertebral Chemistry", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-01 01:31:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1220867"], "description"=>"<p>Mean ± standard error of barium partition coefficients (D<sub>Ba</sub>) by barium treatment. Black diamonds represent 1x, grey triangles 3x, and unfilled squares 6x that of average local barium values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["barium", "elemental"], "article_id"=>811919, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wade D. Smith", "Jessica A. Miller", "Selina S. Heppell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062423.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_barium_treatment_on_elemental_partitioning_/811919", "title"=>"Influence of barium treatment on elemental partitioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-01 01:31:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1220868"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (A, C) somatic growth and (B, D) vertebral precipitation rates by tank, treatment, and experiment (± standard error). (A, B) Black circles represent 15°C treatments, grey circles 18°C treatments, and open circles 24°C treatments. (C, D) Black diamonds represent 1x, grey triangles 3x, and unfilled squares 6x that of average local barium values. Temperatures were equivalent among treatments (19°C) during the barium manipulation experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["somatic", "vertebral", "precipitation", "rates", "barium", "manipulation"], "article_id"=>811920, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wade D. Smith", "Jessica A. Miller", "Selina S. Heppell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062423.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_somatic_growth_and_vertebral_precipitation_rates_during_temperature_and_barium_manipulation_experiments_/811920", "title"=>"Mean somatic growth and vertebral precipitation rates during temperature and barium manipulation experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-01 01:31:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1220866"], "description"=>"<p>Mean ± standard error of barium to calcium ratios for water and vertebral samples. Black diamonds represent 1x, grey triangles 3x, and unfilled squares 6x barium treatments. Element to calcium ratios were log<sub>10</sub>-transformed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vertebral", "barium", "calcium", "ratios"], "article_id"=>811918, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wade D. Smith", "Jessica A. Miller", "Selina S. Heppell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062423.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_water_and_vertebral_barium_to_calcium_ratios_by_barium_treatment_/811918", "title"=>"Relationships between water and vertebral barium to calcium ratios by barium treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-01 01:31:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1220862"], "description"=>"<p>Depiction of a (A) whole and (B) thin-sectioned vertebral centra and (C) the barium to calcium ratio (Ba/Ca) profile collected along a representative laser transect. The birthmark (BM) provides an intrinsic reference and fluorescent markers injected into round rays (Urobatis halleri) at the beginning of the temperature and barium manipulation experiments provided visual references for identifying specific regions deposited during this study. T represents the beginning of the temperature experiment (indicated by an oxytetracycline mark). Ba represents the beginning of the barium manipulation experiment which was distinguishable by a corresponding calcein mark. The dashed line in (B) exemplifies the transect pathway used for laser ablation. Grey vertical bars within (C) depict the regions integrated for analysis. The example in (C) characterizes the variation in vertebral Ba/Ca of a round ray that was maintained at 18°C and 6x ambient Ba concentration during the temperature and barium manipulation experiments, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vertebral"], "article_id"=>811914, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wade D. Smith", "Jessica A. Miller", "Selina S. Heppell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062423.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Processing_and_analysis_of_vertebral_centra_/811914", "title"=>"Processing and analysis of vertebral centra.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-01 01:31:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 428]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}]}
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