Sponge Communities on Caribbean Coral Reefs Are Structured by Factors That Are Top-Down, Not Bottom-Up
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{"title"=>"Sponge Communities on Caribbean Coral Reefs Are Structured by Factors That Are Top-Down, Not Bottom-Up", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joseph R.", "last_name"=>"Pawlik", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005422573"}, {"first_name"=>"Tse Lynn", "last_name"=>"Loh", "scopus_author_id"=>"25623637900"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven E.", "last_name"=>"McMurray", "scopus_author_id"=>"15063072600"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher M.", "last_name"=>"Finelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006629039"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84877245782", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062573", "pui"=>"368876202", "pmid"=>"23667492", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877245782", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"28d812c8-2b95-34be-9956-7cff19e5dd66", "abstract"=>"Caribbean coral reefs have been transformed in the past few decades with the demise of reef-building corals, and sponges are now the dominant habitat-forming organisms on most reefs. Competing hypotheses propose that sponge communities are controlled primarily by predatory fishes (top-down) or by the availability of picoplankton to suspension-feeding sponges (bottom-up). We tested these hypotheses on Conch Reef, off Key Largo, Florida, by placing sponges inside and outside predator-excluding cages at sites with less and more planktonic food availability (15 m vs. 30 m depth). There was no evidence of a bottom-up effect on the growth of any of 5 sponge species, and 2 of 5 species grew more when caged at the shallow site with lower food abundance. There was, however, a strong effect of predation by fishes on sponge species that lacked chemical defenses. Sponges with chemical defenses grew slower than undefended species, demonstrating a resource trade-off between growth and the production of secondary metabolites. Surveys of the benthic community on Conch Reef similarly did not support a bottom-up effect, with higher sponge cover at the shallower depth. We conclude that the structure of sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs is primarily top-down, and predict that removal of sponge predators by overfishing will shift communities toward faster-growing, undefended species that better compete for space with threatened reef-building corals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sponge-communities-caribbean-coral-reefs-structured-factors-topdown-not-bottomup", "reader_count"=>122, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>21, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>88, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>88}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>21}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Barbados"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>3, "Netherlands Antilles"=>1, "Jamaica"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056831"], "description"=>"<p>A: <i>Callyspongia armigera</i> and B: <i>Iotrochota birotulata</i> lack chemical defenses, while C: <i>Amphimedon compressa</i> and D: <i>Aplysina cauliformis</i> contain alkaloids that deter fish predators, represented by a portion of the chemical structure of amphitoxin for the former and aeroplysinin-1 for the latter. Surviving number of 20 replicates is shown for each bar, error bars are standard error. Statistical analyses were performed on transformed data (growth index). An asterisk indicates a significant difference in growth inside vs. outside cages (<i>p</i><0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "biota", "Chemical ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "branching", "sponge", "pieces", "287", "days", "attachment", "predator-excluding", "cages", "15", "30", "conch"], "article_id"=>700205, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph R. Pawlik", "Tse-Lynn Loh", "Steven E. McMurray", "Christopher M. Finelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062573.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_growth_of_branching_sponge_pieces_change_in_wet_mass_287_days_after_attachment_inside_and_outside_of_predator_excluding_cages_at_15_and_30_m_depth_on_Conch_Reef_Florida_/700205", "title"=>"Percentage growth of branching sponge pieces (change in wet mass) 287 days after attachment inside and outside of predator-excluding cages at 15 and 30 m depth on Conch Reef, Florida.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:03:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056833"], "description"=>"<p>Winter storms removed all but 3 cages at the 15 m site; growth of sponges that had been caged by lost cages is shown separately. Surviving number of 20 replicates is shown for each bar, error bars are standard error. Statistical analyses were performed on transformed data (growth index).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "biota", "Chemical ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "sponge", "358", "days", "predator-excluding", "cages", "15", "30", "conch"], "article_id"=>700207, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph R. Pawlik", "Tse-Lynn Loh", "Steven E. McMurray", "Christopher M. Finelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062573.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_growth_of_the_gray_tube_sponge_Callyspongia_vaginalis_change_in_wet_mass_358_days_after_placement_inside_and_outside_of_predator_excluding_cages_at_15_m_and_30_m_depth_on_Conch_Reef_Florida_/700207", "title"=>"Percentage growth of the gray tube sponge <i>Callyspongia vaginalis</i> (change in wet mass) 358 days after placement inside and outside of predator-excluding cages at 15 m and 30 m depth on Conch Reef, Florida.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:03:27"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"1"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Marine biology", "average_usage"=>[379, 624, 751, 898, 1019, 1162, 1280, 1377, 1482, 1611, 1750, 1853, 1936, 1987]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Geographical locations", "average_usage"=>[263, 456, 571, 673, 776, 866, 955, 1040, 1132, 1217, 1310, 1391, 1454]}]}
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