The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders
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{"title"=>"The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jonas O.", "last_name"=>"Wolff", "scopus_author_id"=>"54781951000"}, {"first_name"=>"Wolfgang", "last_name"=>"Nentwig", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007131605"}, {"first_name"=>"Stanislav N.", "last_name"=>"Gorb", "scopus_author_id"=>"56962771500"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368847437", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062682", "sgr"=>"84877012863", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877012863", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23650526"}, "id"=>"1b34b637-a541-3371-b265-944477bb349e", "abstract"=>"Spiders are the most important terrestrial predators among arthropods. Their ecological success is reflected by a high biodiversity and the conquest of nearly every terrestrial habitat. Spiders are closely associated with silk, a material, often seen to be responsible for their great ecological success and gaining high attention in life sciences. However, it is often overlooked that more than half of all Recent spider species have abandoned web building or never developed such an adaptation. These species must have found other, more economic solutions for prey capture and retention, compensating the higher energy costs of increased locomotion activity. Here we show that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa. Previous studies often highlighted the idea that scopulae have the primary function of assisting locomotion, neglecting the fact that only the distal most pads (claw tufts) are suitable for those purposes. The former observations, that scopulae are used in prey capture, are largely overlooked. Our results suggest the scopulae evolved as a substitute for silk in controlling prey and that the claw tufts are, in most cases, a secondary development. Evolutionary trends towards specialized claw tufts and their composition from a low number of enlarged setae to a dense array of slender ones, as well as the secondary loss of those pads are discussed further. Hypotheses about the origin of the adhesive setae and their diversification throughout evolution are provided.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/great-silk-alternative-multiple-coevolution-web-loss-sticky-hairs-spiders", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Reunion"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "South Africa"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>3, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050722"], "description"=>"<p>A. Primitive pretarsus in the ancient <i>Heptathela</i> sp. (Liphistiidae), juvenile, lacking specialized setae. B. Distal tarsus of <i>Malthonica ferruginea</i> (Agelenidae) with a dense ventral coverage of FS-II setae typically occurring in spiders of the basic web types. C. Distal tarsus of the desert dwelling <i>Sicarius</i> sp. (Sicariidae), with reduced setal structures. D. Distal tarsus of <i>Trabea paradoxa</i> (Lycosidae), showing distally extended scopula, resulting in a primitive foot pad (‘false’ claw tuft). E. Distal tarsus of <i>Drassodes lapidosus</i> (Gnaphosidae), with an extended scopula, including a ‘false’ claw tuft. Note the seta width increasing in the distal part of the pad. F. Derived prey capture leg in <i>Palpimanus gibbulus</i> (Palpimanidae), bearing the scopula with spatulate setae. G. Distal tarsus of <i>Clubiona terrestris</i> (Clubionidae) featuring both scopulae and claw tufts. Note the foot pad emerging from the pretarsus, thus being retracted together with the claws. H. Distal tarsus of <i>Marpissa muscosa</i> (Salticidae), bearing only the restricted claw tufts. I. Distal tarsus of the sand-dwelling desert spider <i>Homalonychus selenopoides</i> (Homalonychidae), bearing claw tufts with brush-like, non-widened adhesive setae. K. Distal tarsus of <i>Misumena vatia</i> (Thomisidae), lacking adhesive setae, a presumed secondary loss. L. Distal tarsus of <i>Araneus quadratus</i> (Araneidae), bearing the serrated bristles and the enlarged third claw, adaptations of the derived web building taxa. M. Distal tarsus of the web building <i>Fecenia cylindrata</i> (Psechridae), including claw tufts, a great exception in silk trappers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "biomechanics", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "cladistics", "Phyletic patterns", "phylogenetics", "Evolutionary ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal phylogenetics", "Comparative anatomy", "micrographs", "distal", "spider", "tarsi", "bearing", "tarsal", "claws", "setal", "ventral", "prolateral", "50"], "article_id"=>695579, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas O. Wolff", "Wolfgang Nentwig", "Stanislav N. Gorb"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>133, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SEM_micrographs_of_the_distal_portion_of_spider_tarsi_bearing_the_tarsal_claws_and_setal_pads_ventral_or_prolateral_view_scale_bar_50_181_m_/695579", "title"=>"SEM micrographs of the distal portion of spider tarsi bearing the tarsal claws and setal pads; ventral or prolateral view; scale bar - 50 µm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:32:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050720"], "description"=>"<p>Above: proportions of species bearing claw tufts, scopulae (incl. ‘false’ claw tufts), both or none, combined with lifestyle. Tree and plots below indicate proportions among the different lineages, with sizes of first plots resembling the number of species (numbers given in italic font). Results show the two major evolutionary pathways of spiders, web builders and free hunters, out of which the latter ones are often associated with adhesive setae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "biomechanics", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "cladistics", "Phyletic patterns", "phylogenetics", "Evolutionary ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal phylogenetics", "Comparative anatomy", "adhesive", "setae"], "article_id"=>695578, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas O. Wolff", "Wolfgang Nentwig", "Stanislav N. Gorb"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_adhesive_setae_in_spiders_/695578", "title"=>"Distribution of adhesive setae in spiders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:32:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050727", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050729", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050732"], "description"=>"<div><p>Spiders are the most important terrestrial predators among arthropods. Their ecological success is reflected by a high biodiversity and the conquest of nearly every terrestrial habitat. Spiders are closely associated with silk, a material, often seen to be responsible for their great ecological success and gaining high attention in life sciences. However, it is often overlooked that more than half of all Recent spider species have abandoned web building or never developed such an adaptation. These species must have found other, more economic solutions for prey capture and retention, compensating the higher energy costs of increased locomotion activity. Here we show that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa. Previous studies often highlighted the idea that scopulae have the primary function of assisting locomotion, neglecting the fact that only the distal most pads (claw tufts) are suitable for those purposes. The former observations, that scopulae are used in prey capture, are largely overlooked. Our results suggest the scopulae evolved as a substitute for silk in controlling prey and that the claw tufts are, in most cases, a secondary development. Evolutionary trends towards specialized claw tufts and their composition from a low number of enlarged setae to a dense array of slender ones, as well as the secondary loss of those pads are discussed further. Hypotheses about the origin of the adhesive setae and their diversification throughout evolution are provided.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "biomechanics", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "cladistics", "Phyletic patterns", "phylogenetics", "Evolutionary ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal phylogenetics", "Comparative anatomy", "co-evolution", "sticky", "hairs"], "article_id"=>695581, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas O. Wolff", "Wolfgang Nentwig", "Stanislav N. Gorb"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Great_Silk_Alternative_Multiple_Co_Evolution_of_Web_Loss_and_Sticky_Hairs_in_Spiders_/695581", "title"=>"The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050725"], "description"=>"<p>A. Pretarsus with the claw tuft retracted (low hemolymph pressure). B. Claw tuft protracted under high hemolymph pressure, caused by tight squeezing of the femur. Deformation causes a spreading of the divided claw tuft und protraction of the claws, probably important for fast detachment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "biomechanics", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "cladistics", "Phyletic patterns", "phylogenetics", "Evolutionary ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal phylogenetics", "Comparative anatomy", "micrograph", "mechanics", "claw", "tuft"], "article_id"=>695580, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas O. Wolff", "Wolfgang Nentwig", "Stanislav N. Gorb"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cryo_SEM_micrograph_of_male_Euophrys_frontalis_Salticidae_pretarsus_showing_mechanics_of_claw_tuft_spreading_/695580", "title"=>"Cryo-SEM micrograph of male <i>Euophrys frontalis</i> (Salticidae) pretarsus, showing mechanics of claw tuft spreading.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050717"], "description"=>"<p>Box plots showing the 25th and 75th percentiles and the median line; error bars define the 1.5 times interquartile range; rest values are marked by single circles. Numbers at the bottom give the species numbers sampled (each including the mean width of ten randomly chosen setae/spatulae of the distal part of the claw tuft). Seta width differs significantly between species of different families (Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test: p = 0.000), but not between differently sized (p = 0.155) and ecological groups (p = 0.102) of the overall sample. The same holds for spatula size (families: p = 0.030; size = 0.377; microhabitat = 0.860).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "biomechanics", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "cladistics", "Phyletic patterns", "phylogenetics", "Evolutionary ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal phylogenetics", "Comparative anatomy", "preferred"], "article_id"=>695577, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas O. Wolff", "Wolfgang Nentwig", "Stanislav N. Gorb"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_size_and_preferred_microhabitat_/695577", "title"=>"Body size and preferred microhabitat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:32:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050715"], "description"=>"<p>A. SEM micrographs of distal tips of claw tuft setae, rear view. Arrowheads indicate the remaining tapered tip of the expanded setae. a. Adhesive seta type IIb in <i>Micaria formicaria</i> (Gnaphosidae). b. Adhesive seta type III in <i>Clubiona pallidula</i> (Clubionidae). c. Large adhesive seta type IIa in <i>Anyphaena accentuata</i> (Anyphaenidae). B. SEM micrographs of setae, lateral view. Arrowheads indicate the twisted lamella shaft occurring in claw tuft setae. d. Frictional seta type II in <i>Xysticus lanio</i> (Thomisidae) ventral tarsus. e. Scopula seta of type IIb in <i>Clubiona lutescens</i> (Clubionidae) prolateral tarsus. f. Scopula seta of type IIb in <i>Palpimanus gibbulus</i> (Palpimanidae) prolateral metatarsus. g. Brush like claw tuft seta of type Ia in <i>Homalonychus selenopoides</i> (Homalonychidae), a presumably primitive character. h. Claw tuft seta of type IIb in <i>Euophrys frontalis</i> (Salticidae). i. Claw tuft seta of type III in <i>Clubiona pallidula</i>. k. Claw tuft seta of type IIa in <i>Anyphaena accentuata</i>. C. TEM micrographs of sections of the distal part of tarsal setae. l. Frictional seta type II in <i>Nops largus</i> (Caponiidae). m. Adhesive seta type Ia in <i>Xysticus cristatus</i> (Thomisidae). n. Adhesive seta type IIb in <i>Evarcha arcuata</i> (Salticidae). o. Adhesive seta type IIa in <i>Anyphaena accentuata</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "biomechanics", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "cladistics", "Phyletic patterns", "phylogenetics", "Evolutionary ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal phylogenetics", "Comparative anatomy", "microscopy"], "article_id"=>695575, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas O. Wolff", "Wolfgang Nentwig", "Stanislav N. Gorb"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electron_microscopy_of_isolated_setae_different_scales_/695575", "title"=>"Electron microscopy of isolated setae, different scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:32:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050714"], "description"=>"<p>A. Phylogenetic relationships among the Araneae, adapted from the most recent literature survey (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682#pone.0062682-Nentwig1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a> for details), and the distribution of adhesive (spatulae-bearing) setal pads and web abandoning. Character traces follow the Ancestral State Reconstruction performed with the Mesquite software. B. Combined character traces of pad type distribution in the RTA-clade. The model clearly suggests an early origin of scopulae and the derived state of claw tufts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "biomechanics", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "cladistics", "Phyletic patterns", "phylogenetics", "Evolutionary ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal phylogenetics", "Comparative anatomy", "hairy", "adhesive", "pads"], "article_id"=>695574, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas O. Wolff", "Wolfgang Nentwig", "Stanislav N. Gorb"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evolution_of_hairy_adhesive_pads_and_web_loss_in_spiders_/695574", "title"=>"Evolution of hairy adhesive pads and web loss in spiders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:32:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050711"], "description"=>"<p>For detailed description see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682#pone.0062682-Wolff3\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>. AS, adhesive seta (with spatulae); FS, frictional seta (without spatulae); SB, serrated bristle (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682#pone.0062682-Foelix4\" target=\"_blank\">[55]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "biomechanics", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "cladistics", "Phyletic patterns", "phylogenetics", "Evolutionary ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal phylogenetics", "Comparative anatomy", "setal", "types", "occurring", "distal"], "article_id"=>695571, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas O. Wolff", "Wolfgang Nentwig", "Stanislav N. Gorb"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characters_of_setal_types_occurring_in_the_distal_tarsus_claw_tuft_/695571", "title"=>"Characters of setal types occurring in the distal tarsus/claw tuft.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:32:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050710"], "description"=>"<p>The adhesive setae are coloured in dark grey. In a living specimen they usually appear dark, with the lamellate part being translucent and with an iridescent lustre on the adhesive side.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "biomechanics", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "cladistics", "Phyletic patterns", "phylogenetics", "Evolutionary ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal phylogenetics", "Comparative anatomy", "distal", "spider", "tarsus", "bearing", "scopula", "claw"], "article_id"=>695570, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas O. Wolff", "Wolfgang Nentwig", "Stanislav N. Gorb"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062682.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>408, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_illustration_of_a_distal_spider_tarsus_bearing_scopula_and_claw_tuft_/695570", "title"=>"Schematic illustration of a distal spider tarsus bearing scopula and claw tuft.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:32:50"}

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Relative Metric

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