Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent
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{"title"=>"Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Charlie", "last_name"=>"Huveneers", "scopus_author_id"=>"16233633100"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul J.", "last_name"=>"Rogers", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402548993"}, {"first_name"=>"Jayson M.", "last_name"=>"Semmens", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005133710"}, {"first_name"=>"Crystal", "last_name"=>"Beckmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"55608701600"}, {"first_name"=>"Alison A.", "last_name"=>"Kock", "scopus_author_id"=>"16645873000"}, {"first_name"=>"Brad", "last_name"=>"Page", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103258031"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon D.", "last_name"=>"Goldsworthy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003484431"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877040349", "pui"=>"368847557", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062730", "isbn"=>"19326203 (ISSN)", "sgr"=>"84877040349", "pmid"=>"23658766"}, "id"=>"ac1615b7-74d0-3f68-8fd7-5c3876ec91a5", "abstract"=>"Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1), using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-electric-field-white-sharks-situ-testing-electric-deterrent", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"South Africa"=>3, "Israel"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052329"], "description"=>"<p>The electrodes of the Shark Shield are represented in light grey. The electronic component that attaches to the ankle of the diver is represented in red.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "diver", "wearing", "shield"], "article_id"=>696806, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_a_diver_wearing_a_Shark_Shield_Freedom7_8482_/696806", "title"=>"Schematic representation of a diver wearing a Shark Shield Freedom7™.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:26"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052335"], "description"=>"<p>Reproduced and modified with permission from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730#pone.0062730-Huveneers1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "set-up", "static", "bait", "trials", "neptune", "towed", "decoy"], "article_id"=>696812, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_A_the_experimental_set_up_used_to_test_the_effects_of_an_electric_field_during_static_bait_trials_at_North_Neptune_Island_and_B_the_experimental_set_up_used_with_the_towed_seal_decoy_at_Seal_Island_off_South_Africa_/696812", "title"=>"Schematic representation of (A) the experimental set-up used to test the effects of an electric field during static bait trials at North Neptune Island, and (B) the experimental set-up used with the towed seal decoy at Seal Island off South Africa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052337"], "description"=>"<p>White bars represent trials with the electric field source (EFS) turned off; black bars represent trials with the activated EFS; standard error bars are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "static", "bait"], "article_id"=>696813, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_the_electric_field_during_the_static_bait_trials_/696813", "title"=>"Effects of the electric field during the static bait trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052338"], "description"=>"<p>Reproduced with permission from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730#pone.0062730-Huveneers1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "sharks", "turned"], "article_id"=>696814, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histograms_of_the_minimum_distance_between_white_sharks_and_the_electric_field_source_EFS_when_it_was_turned_off_white_and_on_black_/696814", "title"=>"Histograms of the minimum distance between white sharks and the electric field source (EFS) when it was turned off (white) and on (black).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052340"], "description"=>"<p>Reproduced and modified with permission from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730#pone.0062730-Huveneers1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "underwater", "interactions", "recorded", "turned"], "article_id"=>696815, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_breaches_tow_white_surface_interactions_tow_light_grey_underwater_interactions_video_dark_grey_and_total_number_of_interactions_recorded_surface_and_on_video_video_black_when_the_electric_field_source_was_turned_off_or_on_/696815", "title"=>"Proportion of breaches/tow (white), surface interactions/tow (light grey), underwater interactions/video (dark grey), and total number of interactions recorded (surface and on video)/video (black) when the electric field source was turned off or on.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052343"], "description"=>"<p>N<sup>o</sup> of breach is the number of interactions during which a shark leaps out of the water, with several subtypes described by Martin et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730#pone.0062730-Martin1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a>; N<sup>o</sup> of surface interaction is the number of interactions during which a shark does not leap out of the water but during which dorsal and/or caudal fins are visible above the water surface; N<sup>o</sup> of underwater interaction is the number of interactions not visible from the surface.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "tows", "interactions", "deterrent", "decoy"], "article_id"=>696816, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_number_of_tows_and_interactions_obtained_when_testing_the_deterrent_on_a_dynamic_decoy_in_South_Africa_/696816", "title"=>"Summary of the number of tows and interactions obtained when testing the deterrent on a dynamic decoy in South Africa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052344"], "description"=>"<p>Approach time is the time between deployment of the experimental gear and the first approach within 20 m from the bait; bait time is the time between deployment of the experimental gear and when sharks consumed or bit the bait; distance is the minimum distance between a shark and the deterrent measured for each interaction. DF represents degree of freedom; EFS is electric field source. Reproduced with permission from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730#pone.0062730-Huveneers1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "generalised", "linear", "mixed-model", "static"], "article_id"=>696817, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_Generalised_Linear_Mixed_Model_results_from_the_static_trials_/696817", "title"=>"Summary of the Generalised Linear Mixed-Model results from the static trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052345"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in brackets are standard errors; approach time is the time between deployment of the experimental gear and the first approach within 20 m from the bait; bait time is the time between deployment of the experimental gear and when sharks consumed or bit the bait; distance is the minimum distance between a shark and the deterrent measured for each interaction. This table summarises all data recorded, included for unidentified sharks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "static", "bait"], "article_id"=>696818, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_results_obtained_from_the_static_bait_experiment_/696818", "title"=>"Summary of the results obtained from the static bait experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052346"], "description"=>"<p>Approach time is the time between deployment of the experimental gear and the first approach within 20 m from the bait; bait time is the time between deployment of the experimental gear and when sharks consumed or bit the bait; distance is the minimum distance between a shark and the deterrent measured for each interaction. Numbers in brackets represent p-value; numbers in bold represent significant correlations (P<0.05). Reproduced and modified with permission from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730#pone.0062730-Huveneers1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "static"], "article_id"=>696819, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_Pearson_8217_s_r_for_each_response_variable_of_the_static_trials_/696819", "title"=>"Summary of Pearson’s r for each response variable of the static trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052354", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052356", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052357", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052358", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052360", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052361", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052367", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052368", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052369", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1052371"], "description"=>"<div><p>Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm<sup>–1</sup>, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (<i>Carcharodon carcharias</i>) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "electrophysiology", "ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Physiological ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine ecology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "deterrent"], "article_id"=>696827, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Charlie Huveneers", "Paul J. Rogers", "Jayson M. Semmens", "Crystal Beckmann", "Alison A. Kock", "Brad Page", "Simon D. Goldsworthy"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062730.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>23, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effects_of_an_Electric_Field_on_White_Sharks_In_Situ_Testing_of_an_Electric_Deterrent/696827", "title"=>"Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: <i>In Situ</i> Testing of an Electric Deterrent", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-05-02 01:53:47"}

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Relative Metric

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