Evidence of Maternal Offloading of Organic Contaminants in White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias)
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{"title"=>"Evidence of Maternal Offloading of Organic Contaminants in White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christopher G.", "last_name"=>"Mull", "scopus_author_id"=>"24832163100"}, {"first_name"=>"Kady", "last_name"=>"Lyons", "scopus_author_id"=>"55671987700"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary E.", "last_name"=>"Blasius", "scopus_author_id"=>"25030017200"}, {"first_name"=>"Chuck", "last_name"=>"Winkler", "scopus_author_id"=>"16647698300"}, {"first_name"=>"John B.", "last_name"=>"O'Sullivan", "scopus_author_id"=>"16646806000"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher G.", "last_name"=>"Lowe", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201725117"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84876991446", "pmid"=>"23646154", "pui"=>"368837322", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876991446", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062886", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"1fb90ce3-0ad3-3f2e-af9f-0f3e31c77bb4", "abstract"=>"Organic contaminants were measured in young of the year (YOY) white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) incidentally caught in southern California between 2005 and 2012 (n = 20) and were found to be unexpectedly high considering the young age and dietary preferences of young white sharks, suggesting these levels may be due to exposure in utero. To assess the potential contributions of dietary exposure to the observed levels, a five-parameter bioaccumulation model was used to estimate the total loads a newborn shark would potentially accumulate in one year from consuming contaminated prey from southern California. Maximum simulated dietary accumulation of DDTs and PCBs were 25.1 and 4.73 µg/g wet weight (ww) liver, respectively. Observed ΣDDT and ΣPCB concentrations (95±91 µg/g and 16±10 µg/g ww, respectively) in a majority of YOY sharks were substantially higher than the model predictions suggesting an additional source of contaminant exposure beyond foraging. Maternal offloading of organic contaminants during reproduction has been noted in other apex predators, but this is the first evidence of transfer in a matrotrophic shark. While there are signs of white shark population recovery in the eastern Pacific, the long-term physiological and population level consequences of biomagnification and maternal offloading of environmental contaminants in white sharks is unclear.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evidence-maternal-offloading-organic-contaminants-white-sharks-carcharodon-carcharias", "reader_count"=>75, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1049151"], "description"=>"<p>Capture date, total length (TL), percent lipid concentration of the liver and liver concentrations (µg/g, wet weight) for ΣDDT and ΣPCB for the YOY white shark samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine ecology", "Marine monitoring", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "percent", "lipid", "concentrations", "yoy"], "article_id"=>694384, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christopher G. Mull", "Kady Lyons", "Mary E. Blasius", "Chuck Winkler", "John B. O’Sullivan", "Christopher G. Lowe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062886.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Capture_date_total_length_TL_percent_lipid_concentration_of_the_liver_and_liver_concentrations_181_g_g_wet_weight_for_931_DDT_and_931_PCB_for_the_YOY_white_shark_samples_/694384", "title"=>"Capture date, total length (TL), percent lipid concentration of the liver and liver concentrations (µg/g, wet weight) for ΣDDT and ΣPCB for the YOY white shark samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-30 01:13:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1049147"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Dietary accumulation of ΣDDT was estimated to be 25.1±8.23 µg/g (solid and broken reference lines). There was no significant relationship between TL and ΣDDT levels. (B) Dietary accumulation of ΣPCBs was estimated to be 4.73±1.53 µg/g (solid and broken reference lines). There was no significant relationship between TL and ΣPCBs levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine ecology", "Marine monitoring", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "organochlorine", "contaminants", "yoy", "sharks", "compared", "dietary", "accumulation"], "article_id"=>694381, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christopher G. Mull", "Kady Lyons", "Mary E. Blasius", "Chuck Winkler", "John B. O’Sullivan", "Christopher G. Lowe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062886.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measured_concentration_of_organochlorine_contaminants_181_g_g_wet_weight_in_liver_of_YOY_white_sharks_across_total_length_TL_cm_compared_with_maximum_expected_dietary_accumulation_over_one_year_/694381", "title"=>"Measured concentration of organochlorine contaminants (µg/g, wet weight) in liver of YOY white sharks across total length (TL, cm), compared with maximum expected dietary accumulation over one year.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-30 01:13:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1049149"], "description"=>"<p>There was no significant relationship between HSI and ΣDDT (A) or ΣPCBs (B). Hepatic lipid levels were positively related to both ΣDDT (C) and ΣPCBs (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine ecology", "Marine monitoring", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "organochlorine", "contaminants", "metrics"], "article_id"=>694382, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christopher G. Mull", "Kady Lyons", "Mary E. Blasius", "Chuck Winkler", "John B. O’Sullivan", "Christopher G. Lowe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062886.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_levels_of_organochlorine_contaminants_versus_metrics_of_body_condition_/694382", "title"=>"Observed levels of organochlorine contaminants versus metrics of body condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-30 01:13:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1049146"], "description"=>"<p>Black crosses denote the capture location of each individual used in this study. The shaded area represents the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site where large amounts of DDT and PCBs were discharged with effluent and constitute a large portion of the legacy contaminants in the SCB.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine ecology", "Marine monitoring", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "california", "bight"], "article_id"=>694380, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christopher G. Mull", "Kady Lyons", "Mary E. Blasius", "Chuck Winkler", "John B. O’Sullivan", "Christopher G. Lowe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062886.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_study_area_in_the_Southern_California_Bight_SCB_/694380", "title"=>"Map of the study area in the Southern California Bight (SCB).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-30 01:13:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1049150"], "description"=>"*<p> = wet weight.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine ecology", "Marine monitoring", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "simulate", "dietary", "bioaccumulation", "365"], "article_id"=>694383, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christopher G. Mull", "Kady Lyons", "Mary E. Blasius", "Chuck Winkler", "John B. O’Sullivan", "Christopher G. Lowe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062886.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameter_values_used_to_simulate_dietary_bioaccumulation_over_365_days_/694383", "title"=>"Parameter values used to simulate dietary bioaccumulation over 365 days.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-30 01:13:03"}

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Relative Metric

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