Using Hormones to Manage Dairy Cow Fertility: The Clinical and Ethical Beliefs of Veterinary Practitioners
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{"title"=>"Using Hormones to Manage Dairy Cow Fertility: The Clinical and Ethical Beliefs of Veterinary Practitioners", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Helen M.", "last_name"=>"Higgins", "scopus_author_id"=>"36086239600"}, {"first_name"=>"Eamonn", "last_name"=>"Ferguson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102858467"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert F.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"35508911100"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin J.", "last_name"=>"Green", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406234904"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23638174", "sgr"=>"84876872255", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062993", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876872255", "pui"=>"368819767", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"2cbb78cf-85d3-3c94-a6c1-00f37d294153", "abstract"=>"In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged \"unacceptable\" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional codes of conduct.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/using-hormones-manage-dairy-cow-fertility-clinical-ethical-beliefs-veterinary-practitioners", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044253"], "description"=>"<p>The four main ways to assist breeding in lactating dairy cattle using hormones.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "ways", "breeding", "lactating", "dairy"], "article_id"=>692263, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_four_main_ways_to_assist_breeding_in_lactating_dairy_cattle_using_hormones_/692263", "title"=>"The four main ways to assist breeding in lactating dairy cattle using hormones.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044256"], "description"=>"<p>The context relates to the use of hormones to assist breeding in lactating dairy cattle without reproductive pathology. The lists provide a summary of interviews with three veterinary academics and two veterinary practitioners. There is no significance attached to the vertical order of items.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "prescribing", "veterinary"], "article_id"=>692265, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Potential_advantages_disadvantages_of_prescribing_hormones_from_a_veterinary_perspective_/692265", "title"=>"Potential advantages/disadvantages of prescribing hormones from a veterinary perspective.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044258"], "description"=>"<p>Practitioners’ replies to question 13a were categorized to reflect the answers given, but overlap existed in terms of concepts (e.g. high yield, breeding and lameness are related). The raw data are available in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993#pone.0062993.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "believed", "oestrus", "dairy", "farms"], "article_id"=>692266, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factors_believed_to_contribute_to_poor_oestrus_expression_on_dairy_farms_n_8202_8202_278_replies_/692266", "title"=>"Factors believed to contribute to poor oestrus expression on dairy farms (n = 278 replies).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044259"], "description"=>"<p><b>*</b>denotes a statistically significant change in the distribution of responses between categories, from the outcome if hormones are used to the outcome if management issues are improved instead (p<0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "prescribing", "addressing", "causes", "years"], "article_id"=>692267, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_prescribing_hormones_versus_addressing_underlying_causes_instead_over_5_years_n_8202_8202_93_vets_/692267", "title"=>"The effect of prescribing hormones versus addressing underlying causes instead over 5 years (n = 93 vets).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044263"], "description"=>"<p>All questions relate to use in lactating dairy cattle, without reproductive pathology. As listed in the figure, these relate to questions 2, 17, 7, 9, 6, and 14 of the questionnaire.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "responses", "questions"], "article_id"=>692269, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Practitioners_8217_responses_to_clinical_questions_n_8202_8202_93_/692269", "title"=>"Practitioners’ responses to clinical questions (n = 93).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044265"], "description"=>"<p>Question 15(a-e) asked practitioners to state whether they believe other stakeholders see a need to prescribe hormones to assist breeding in lactating dairy cattle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "perceptions", "stakeholders"], "article_id"=>692270, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Practitioners_8217_perceptions_of_other_stakeholders_n_8202_8202_93_/692270", "title"=>"Practitioners’ perceptions of other stakeholders (n = 93).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044267"], "description"=>"<p>Note: some practitioners cited more than one concern.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "concerns", "breeding", "lactating", "dairy"], "article_id"=>692271, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Practitioners_8217_concerns_regarding_the_use_of_hormones_to_assist_breeding_in_lactating_dairy_cattle_n_8202_8202_48_/692271", "title"=>"Practitioners’ concerns regarding the use of hormones to assist breeding in lactating dairy cattle (n = 48).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044270"], "description"=>"*<p>Percentages relate to the definitive replies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "acceptability", "breeding", "problems", "addressed", "16"], "article_id"=>692273, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Practitioner_acceptability_of_long_term_routine_prescription_of_hormones_to_assist_breeding_when_management_problems_are_not_addressed_questions_16_and_18_/692273", "title"=>"Practitioner acceptability of long-term routine prescription of hormones to assist breeding when management problems are not addressed (questions 16 and 18).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044271"], "description"=>"<p>+ The full list of covariates available is provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993#pone.0062993.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S2</a>.</p>*<p>fixed-time artificial insemination to be used if a cow has not been inseminated by some defined point after calving, but not as soon as she is eligible to be bred from.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "regression"], "article_id"=>692274, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Logistic_regression_results_for_practitioner_characteristics_associated_with_reporting_concern_over_the_prescription_of_hormones_to_assist_breeding_/692274", "title"=>"Logistic regression results for practitioner characteristics associated with reporting concern over the prescription of hormones to assist breeding.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044272"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics of veterinary practitioners (n = 94).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "veterinary", "practitioners"], "article_id"=>692275, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_veterinary_practitioners_n_8202_8202_94_/692275", "title"=>"Characteristics of veterinary practitioners (n = 94).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044275", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044284", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044286", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044293", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044296", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044298"], "description"=>"<div><p>In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged “unacceptable” by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional codes of conduct.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "Agricultural production", "High-input farming", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal production", "Animal welfare", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "hormones", "Reproductive endocrinology", "Reproductive system", "Reproductive physiology", "Sexual reproduction", "bioethics", "Animal studies", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "Animal performance", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Veterinary medicine", "Livestock care", "Veterinary pathology", "dairy", "beliefs", "veterinary"], "article_id"=>692277, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Helen M. Higgins", "Eamonn Ferguson", "Robert F. Smith", "Martin J. Green"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062993.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Using_Hormones_to_Manage_Dairy_Cow_Fertility_The_Clinical_and_Ethical_Beliefs_of_Veterinary_Practitioners_/692277", "title"=>"Using Hormones to Manage Dairy Cow Fertility: The Clinical and Ethical Beliefs of Veterinary Practitioners", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:37:57"}

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Relative Metric

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