Potential of Best Practice to Reduce Impacts from Oil and Gas Projects in the Amazon
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{"title"=>"Potential of Best Practice to Reduce Impacts from Oil and Gas Projects in the Amazon", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matt", "last_name"=>"Finer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003923121"}, {"first_name"=>"Clinton N.", "last_name"=>"Jenkins", "scopus_author_id"=>"8730719900"}, {"first_name"=>"Bill", "last_name"=>"Powers", "scopus_author_id"=>"55674346400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368847422", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0063022", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877012944", "pmid"=>"23650541", "sgr"=>"84877012944"}, "id"=>"0f41b730-6b86-3be9-9ee7-5a9627cdeb5e", "abstract"=>"<p>The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.</p></sec>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/potential-best-practice-reduce-impacts-oil-gas-projects-amazon", "reader_count"=>91, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>31, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>11, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>31}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050734"], "description"=>"<p>We focus on the Department of Loreto in the northern Peruvian Amazon. Amazon ecoregions are as defined by <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022#pone.0063022-Olson1\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Ecological risk", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "organic chemistry", "Organic compounds", "hydrocarbons", "Energy and power", "Fossil fuels", "Crude oil", "natural gas", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental engineering", "Environmental economics", "Science policy and economics", "focal"], "article_id"=>695585, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Matt Finer", "Clinton N. Jenkins", "Bill Powers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_focal_area_/695585", "title"=>"Study focal area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050736"], "description"=>"<p>There are three general types of blocks based on the contractual agreement between government and a company: concession in exploration phase, concession in production phase, and proposed concession under promotion or negotiation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Ecological risk", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "organic chemistry", "Organic compounds", "hydrocarbons", "Energy and power", "Fossil fuels", "Crude oil", "natural gas", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental engineering", "Environmental economics", "Science policy and economics", "blocks"], "article_id"=>695587, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Matt Finer", "Clinton N. Jenkins", "Bill Powers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hydrocarbon_blocks_in_Loreto_/695587", "title"=>"Hydrocarbon blocks in Loreto.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050743"], "description"=>"<p>2D testing is represented by straight lines and is measured in kilometers while 3D testing is represented by polygons and measured in square kilometers. It is important to note that numerous hydrocarbon blocks have previously existed but subsequently been retired. Thus, many seismic lines appear outside the current blocks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Ecological risk", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "organic chemistry", "Organic compounds", "hydrocarbons", "Energy and power", "Fossil fuels", "Crude oil", "natural gas", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental engineering", "Environmental economics", "Science policy and economics", "planned", "2d", "3d", "seismic"], "article_id"=>695594, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Matt Finer", "Clinton N. Jenkins", "Bill Powers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Existing_and_planned_2D_and_3D_seismic_testing_in_Loreto_/695594", "title"=>"Existing and planned 2D and 3D seismic testing in Loreto.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050745"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Map for all of Loreto. Note that stars indicate the Block 64 light crude oil discovery, the Block 95 medium oil discovery, and the Block 31 shale gas discovery. (B) Zoom of high activity zone in and around Blocks 1AB, 39, and 67. Note that stars indicate the Blocks 39 and 67 heavy crude oil discoveries. It is important to note that numerous hydrocarbon blocks have previously existed but subsequently been retired. Thus, many exploration wells appear outside the current blocks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Ecological risk", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "organic chemistry", "Organic compounds", "hydrocarbons", "Energy and power", "Fossil fuels", "Crude oil", "natural gas", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental engineering", "Environmental economics", "Science policy and economics", "planned", "exploratory"], "article_id"=>695596, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Matt Finer", "Clinton N. Jenkins", "Bill Powers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Existing_and_planned_exploratory_wells_production_wells_access_roads_and_flowlines_pipelines_in_Loreto_/695596", "title"=>"Existing and planned exploratory wells, production wells, access roads, and flowlines/pipelines in Loreto.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050749"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Planned exploratory wells, production wells, and processing facilities. Red circles indicate multiple platforms within eight kilometers of a single hypothetical ERD-capable drilling platform. (B) Alternative design based on best practice. Yellow dots indicate where an ERD-capable drilling platform could replace multiple planned platforms. Note that the Dorado processing facility is eliminated due to distance from a navigable river.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Ecological risk", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "organic chemistry", "Organic compounds", "hydrocarbons", "Energy and power", "Fossil fuels", "Crude oil", "natural gas", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental engineering", "Environmental economics", "Science policy and economics", "planned", "projects", "guidelines"], "article_id"=>695600, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Matt Finer", "Clinton N. Jenkins", "Bill Powers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_planned_projects_in_relation_to_best_practice_guidelines_in_high_activity_zone_of_Loreto_/695600", "title"=>"Analysis of planned projects in relation to best practice guidelines in high activity zone of Loreto.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050752"], "description"=>"<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022#pone.0063022.s007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S7</a> for more information on background layer. Light blue indicates an important or sensitive area that is not covered by a hydrocarbon block, while orange indicates an area that is covered by a block. Further, we indicate planned 2D and 3D seismic testing, exploratory and production wells, access roads, and flowlines/pipelines that would overlap with at least one of the key ecological and social factors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Ecological risk", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "organic chemistry", "Organic compounds", "hydrocarbons", "Energy and power", "Fossil fuels", "Crude oil", "natural gas", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental engineering", "Environmental economics", "Science policy and economics"], "article_id"=>695603, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Matt Finer", "Clinton N. Jenkins", "Bill Powers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Consideration_of_key_ecological_and_social_factors_overlaps_/695603", "title"=>"Consideration of key ecological and social factors: overlaps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050754"], "description"=>"<p>Best practice guidelines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Ecological risk", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "organic chemistry", "Organic compounds", "hydrocarbons", "Energy and power", "Fossil fuels", "Crude oil", "natural gas", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental engineering", "Environmental economics", "Science policy and economics"], "article_id"=>695605, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Matt Finer", "Clinton N. Jenkins", "Bill Powers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Best_practice_guidelines_/695605", "title"=>"Best practice guidelines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050765", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050767", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050768", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050770", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050774", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050776", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050778"], "description"=>"<div><p></p><p>The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Ecological risk", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Conservation science", "Environmental protection", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "organic chemistry", "Organic compounds", "hydrocarbons", "Energy and power", "Fossil fuels", "Crude oil", "natural gas", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental engineering", "Environmental economics", "Science policy and economics", "impacts", "projects"], "article_id"=>695609, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Matt Finer", "Clinton N. Jenkins", "Bill Powers"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063022.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>21, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Potential_of_Best_Practice_to_Reduce_Impacts_from_Oil_and_Gas_Projects_in_the_Amazon_/695609", "title"=>"Potential of Best Practice to Reduce Impacts from Oil and Gas Projects in the Amazon", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:33:29"}

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Relative Metric

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