Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China
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{"title"=>"Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Xiaoyan", "last_name"=>"Yang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406503685"}, {"first_name"=>"Huw J.", "last_name"=>"Barton", "scopus_author_id"=>"56275123500"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhiwei", "last_name"=>"Wan", "scopus_author_id"=>"49864840300"}, {"first_name"=>"Quan", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"55668088600"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhikun", "last_name"=>"Ma", "scopus_author_id"=>"55479161600"}, {"first_name"=>"Mingqi", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"57061513600"}, {"first_name"=>"Dan", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198599705"}, {"first_name"=>"Jun", "last_name"=>"Wei", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198756743"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877252114", "sgr"=>"84877252114", "pui"=>"368876175", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23667584", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0063148"}, "id"=>"44e03816-a8ca-3ac6-a155-d4f131ea5d37", "abstract"=>"Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350-2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sagotype-palms-were-important-plant-food-prior-rice-southern-subtropical-china", "reader_count"=>41, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Arts and Humanities"=>10, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>10, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>10}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056645"], "description"=>"<p>Location of the study region (A), the site is indicated by the red triangle (B), and geomorphological features of the Xincun site (C). Red grids mark excavation area (AI-III), stippling shows coastal sand dunes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Botany", "nutrition", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "xincun"], "article_id"=>700071, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyan Yang", "Huw J. Barton", "Zhiwei Wan", "Quan Li", "Zhikun Ma", "Mingqi Li", "Dan Zhang", "Jun Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Xincun_Site_on_the_southern_coast_of_China_/700071", "title"=>"The Xincun Site on the southern coast of China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:01:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056646"], "description"=>"<p>White dots and arrows indicate sampling locations. Scale bar: 5 cm. 1-<i>n</i> indicate sample numbers used in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148#pone-0063148-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Botany", "nutrition", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "tools", "examined", "starch", "residues", "phytoliths"], "article_id"=>700072, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyan Yang", "Huw J. Barton", "Zhiwei Wan", "Quan Li", "Zhikun Ma", "Mingqi Li", "Dan Zhang", "Jun Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stone_tools_examined_for_starch_residues_1_8211_8_and_phytoliths_9_8211_12_/700072", "title"=>"Stone tools examined for starch residues (1#–8#) and phytoliths (9#–12#).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:01:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056647"], "description"=>"<p>a, <i>Caryota</i> sp., range, 12.1–25.8 µm; b, <i>Corypha</i> sp., range, 10.6–15.5 µm; c, possibly <i>Arenga</i> sp., 11.0 µm; d–j, starches from <i>Musa</i>; d, e and g, similar to hybrid type, range, 25.1–55.6 µm; f and h, under polarized light. i, cf. <i>M. acuminata</i>, range, 11.7–18.0 µm; j, under polarized light; k, cf. <i>Nelumbo nucifera</i>, range, 28.2–31.8 µm; l, <i>Sagittarria</i> sp., range, 14.2–21.8 µm; m, cf. <i>Eleocharis dulcis</i>, 8.8–12.7 µm; n and o, compound starch grains from <i>Angiopteris</i> spp. under brightfield and polarized light, respectively, range, 12.1–32.4 µm; p, <i>Coix</i> spp., range, 9.4–22.5 µm. Scale bar, 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Botany", "nutrition", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "starches", "recovered", "residues"], "article_id"=>700073, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyan Yang", "Huw J. Barton", "Zhiwei Wan", "Quan Li", "Zhikun Ma", "Mingqi Li", "Dan Zhang", "Jun Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>47, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ancient_starches_recovered_from_residues_on_the_stone_tools_/700073", "title"=>"Ancient starches recovered from residues on the stone tools.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:01:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056648"], "description"=>"<p>a, <i>Caryota mitis</i>, range, 3.3–10.7 µm; b, <i>Caryota urens</i>, range, 6.6–45.7 µm; c, <i>Corypha umbraculifera</i>, range, 11.4–48.7 µm; d, <i>Arenga undulatifolia</i>, range, 3.0–17.8 µm; e–f, <i>Musa acuminata</i>, under brightfield and polarized light, range, 6.2–41.3 µm; g, <i>Nelumbo nucifera</i> (root), range, 8.0–72.4 µm; h, <i>Sagittaria trifolia</i>, range, 9.7–27.6 µm; i, <i>Eleocharis dulcis</i>, range, 4.7–18.7 µm; j–k, compound starch grains from <i>Angiopteris yunnanensis</i> under brightfield and polarized light, respectively, range, 9.3–149.4 µm; l, <i>Coix lacryma-jobi</i>, range, 5.4–20.4 µm. Scale bar, 20 µm except a and c, 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Botany", "nutrition", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "starch", "granules"], "article_id"=>700074, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyan Yang", "Huw J. Barton", "Zhiwei Wan", "Quan Li", "Zhikun Ma", "Mingqi Li", "Dan Zhang", "Jun Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>174, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristic_starch_granules_from_modern_plants_/700074", "title"=>"Characteristic starch granules from modern plants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:01:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056649"], "description"=>"<p>The Upper image of each pair shows the starch under brightfield light, and the Lower image shows it under cross-polarized light. The first pair is modern acorn starches (<i>Quercus acutissima</i>), range, 5.1–23.7 µm; the remaining four pairs are ancient starches identified as <i>Quercus</i> sp., range, 11.8–16.4 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Botany", "nutrition", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "archaeological", "starch", "granules"], "article_id"=>700075, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyan Yang", "Huw J. Barton", "Zhiwei Wan", "Quan Li", "Zhikun Ma", "Mingqi Li", "Dan Zhang", "Jun Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>106, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modern_and_archaeological_starch_granules_from_acorns_/700075", "title"=>"Modern and archaeological starch granules from acorns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:01:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056650"], "description"=>"<p>a and b, globular echinate (or ‘spherical crenate’) from Aracaceae; e, scale decorated bulliform from <i>Oryza</i>; f, glume with two peaks from <i>Oryza</i>. Scale bar, 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Botany", "nutrition", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "phytolith", "types", "extracted", "tools"], "article_id"=>700076, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyan Yang", "Huw J. Barton", "Zhiwei Wan", "Quan Li", "Zhikun Ma", "Mingqi Li", "Dan Zhang", "Jun Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Some_phytolith_types_extracted_from_tools_9_8211_12_/700076", "title"=>"Some phytolith types extracted from tools 9#–12#.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:01:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056651"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage diagram for selected phytolith types from surface residues of stone tools 9#–12#: A and B indicate the used facet and non-used facet, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Botany", "nutrition", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "diagram", "phytolith", "types", "residues", "tools", "facet", "non-used"], "article_id"=>700077, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyan Yang", "Huw J. Barton", "Zhiwei Wan", "Quan Li", "Zhikun Ma", "Mingqi Li", "Dan Zhang", "Jun Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_diagram_for_selected_phytolith_types_from_surface_residues_of_stone_tools_9_8211_12_A_and_B_indicate_the_used_facet_and_non_used_facet_respectively_/700077", "title"=>"Percentage diagram for selected phytolith types from surface residues of stone tools 9#–12#: A and B indicate the used facet and non-used facet, respectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:01:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056652"], "description"=>"a)<p>Stone tools 1–5, 9–11 from ancient living surface (ASL) 1; 6 &12 from ASL2; and 7 & 8 from ASL5, slightly earlier than 3,350-3,080a BC (BA090575).</p>b)<p>Starch types. a, palms; b, banana (<i>Musa</i> sp.); c, lotus (cf. <i>Nelumbo nucifera</i>); d, Chinese arrowhead (<i>Sagittaria</i> sp.); e, water chestnut (cf. <i>Eleocharis dulcis</i>); f, fern (<i>Angiopteris</i> sp.); g, Job's-tear (<i>Coix</i> spp); h, acorn (<i>Quercus</i> sp.); i, starch granules damaged and/or unidentifiable.</p>c)<p>Phytolith types.</p><p>j, globular echinate type from palms; k, polygonal cone from sedge; l, elongate of triangular prism from fern; m, sum of bulliform, two-peak glume and bilobate from <i>Oryza</i>; n, bulliform echinate and long saddle types from bamboo; o, broadleaved-tree phytolith; p, reed bulliform; q, sum of other types including conifer-tree phytolith, rondel from other grasses, etc. The detailed data showed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148#pone-0063148-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7</a>. r, unidentifiable phytoliths.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Botany", "nutrition", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "amounts", "starches", "phytolith", "milling", "stones", "xincun"], "article_id"=>700078, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyan Yang", "Huw J. Barton", "Zhiwei Wan", "Quan Li", "Zhikun Ma", "Mingqi Li", "Dan Zhang", "Jun Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Types_and_amounts_of_starches_and_phytolith_on_milling_stones_from_the_Xincun_Site_/700078", "title"=>"Types and amounts of starches and phytolith on milling stones from the Xincun Site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:01:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1056653"], "description"=>"<p>Note:</p>§<p>ALS is Ancient Living Surface. Half life of carbon is 5568 and BP is before 1950. Tree ring curve for calibaration is IntCalo4(1), and progremee for calibartion is OxCal v3.10(2).</p><p>• Reimer PJ, MGL Baillie, E Bard, A Bayliss, JW Beck, C Bertrand, PG Blackwell, CE Buck, G Burr, KB Cutler, PE Damon, RL Edwards, RG Fairbanks, M Friedrich, TP Guilderson, KA Hughen, B Kromer, FG McCormac, S Manning, C Bronk Ramsey, RW Reimer, S Remmels, JR Southon, M Stuivers, S Talamo, FW Taylor, J van der Plicht, and CE Weyhenmeyer. 2004 <i>Radiocarbon</i> 46:1029–1058.</p><p>• Christopher Bronk Ramsey 2005, <a href=\"http://www.rlaha.ox.ac.uk/orau/oxcal.html\" target=\"_blank\">www.rlaha.ox.ac.uk/orau/oxcal.html</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Botany", "nutrition", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "radiocarbon", "dates", "xincun"], "article_id"=>700079, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyan Yang", "Huw J. Barton", "Zhiwei Wan", "Quan Li", "Zhikun Ma", "Mingqi Li", "Dan Zhang", "Jun Wei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063148.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>47, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AMS_radiocarbon_dates_from_occupation_layers_Xincun_site_/700079", "title"=>"AMS radiocarbon dates from occupation layers, Xincun site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:01:19"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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