A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods
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{"title"=>"A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nathalie", "last_name"=>"Bardet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701832334"}, {"first_name"=>"Nour Eddine", "last_name"=>"Jalil", "scopus_author_id"=>"55903034300"}, {"first_name"=>"France", "last_name"=>"de Lapparent de Broin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602186128"}, {"first_name"=>"Damien", "last_name"=>"Germain", "scopus_author_id"=>"8568458300"}, {"first_name"=>"Olivier", "last_name"=>"Lambert", "scopus_author_id"=>"8619546900"}, {"first_name"=>"Mbarek", "last_name"=>"Amaghzaz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508257304"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369305044", "sgr"=>"84880051024", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23874378", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880051024", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0063586", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"a3570962-8739-31ae-8160-8a14d246ffb7", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250-65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late Maastrichtian phosphatic beds of Morocco, further supports the hypothesis that marine life was, at least locally, very diversified just prior to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) biotic crisis.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/giant-chelonioid-turtle-late-cretaceous-morocco-suction-feeding-apparatus-unique-among-tetrapods", "reader_count"=>69, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>27}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>27}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>2, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Mozambique"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117128", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117132"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250–65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles.</p><p>Principal Findings</p><p>A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, <i>Ocepechelon bouyai</i> gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of <i>Ocepechelon</i> not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles.</p><p>Conclusion/Significance</p><p>The feeding apparatus of <i>Ocepechelon</i>, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to <i>Ocepechelon</i> in the Late Maastrichtian phosphatic beds of Morocco, further supports the hypothesis that marine life was, at least locally, very diversified just prior to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) biotic crisis.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Zoology", "Herpetology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Marine biology", "paleobiology", "chelonioid", "turtle", "cretaceous", "morocco", "suction", "feeding", "apparatus"], "article_id"=>744190, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathalie Bardet", "Nour-Eddine Jalil", "France de Lapparent de Broin", "Damien Germain", "Olivier Lambert", "Mbarek Amaghzaz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Giant_Chelonioid_Turtle_from_the_Late_Cretaceous_of_Morocco_with_a_Suction_Feeding_Apparatus_Unique_among_Tetrapods_/744190", "title"=>"A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-07-11 02:31:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117125"], "description"=>"<p><i>Ocepechelon</i> is a remote relative of the extant leatherback turtle <i>Dermochelys coriacea</i> and of fossil protostegids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Zoology", "Herpetology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Marine biology", "paleobiology", "time-calibrated", "phylogenetic", "relationships", "et"], "article_id"=>744187, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathalie Bardet", "Nour-Eddine Jalil", "France de Lapparent de Broin", "Damien Germain", "Olivier Lambert", "Mbarek Amaghzaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chelonioidea_time_calibrated_consensus_phylogenetic_tree_showing_the_phylogenetic_relationships_of_Ocepechelon_gen_et_sp_nov_/744187", "title"=>"Chelonioidea time-calibrated consensus phylogenetic tree showing the phylogenetic relationships of <i>Ocepechelon</i> gen. et sp. nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-11 02:31:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117124"], "description"=>"<p>(Published with the permission of C. Letenneur/MNHN under a CC-BY license).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Zoology", "Herpetology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Marine biology", "paleobiology", "et"], "article_id"=>744186, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathalie Bardet", "Nour-Eddine Jalil", "France de Lapparent de Broin", "Damien Germain", "Olivier Lambert", "Mbarek Amaghzaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ocepechelon_bouyai_gen_et_sp_nov_life_reconstruction_/744186", "title"=>"<i>Ocepechelon bouyai</i> gen. et sp. nov., life reconstruction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-11 02:31:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117119"], "description"=>"<p>OCP DEK/GE 516, Holotype, Phosphates (Upper Level III, Upper Maastrichtian, uppermost Cretaceous), Sidi Chennane area (Oulad Abdoun Basin, Morocco). Photographs and interpretative drawings. <b>Abbreviations</b>: Boc, basioccipital; Bsph, basisphenoid; Cho, choanae; En, external nare; Fpci, <i>foramen posterior canalis carotici interni</i>; Fr, frontal; Ica, <i>incisura columellae auris</i>; Ju, jugal; Mx, maxilla; Na, nasal; Op, opisthotic; Pa, parietal; Pal, palatine; Pfr, prefrontal; Pmx, premaxilla; Po, postorbital; pr tro ot, <i>processus trochlearis oticus</i>; Pt, pterygoid; Ptw, pterygoid wing; Q, quadrate; Qj, quadratojugal; Ra, marks of the rhamphotheca; Sq, squamosal; Vo, vomer. Scale = 20 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Zoology", "Herpetology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Marine biology", "paleobiology", "et", "dorsal", "ventral", "views"], "article_id"=>744181, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathalie Bardet", "Nour-Eddine Jalil", "France de Lapparent de Broin", "Damien Germain", "Olivier Lambert", "Mbarek Amaghzaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ocepechelon_bouyai_gen_et_sp_nov_dorsal_left_and_ventral_right_views_of_the_skull_/744181", "title"=>"<i>Ocepechelon bouyai</i> gen. et sp. nov., dorsal (left) and ventral (right) views of the skull.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-11 02:31:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117126"], "description"=>"<p>From <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586#pone.0063586-Bardet1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a> and personal observations (F.L.B. and N.B.) for unpublished data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Zoology", "Herpetology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Marine biology", "paleobiology", "reptile", "phosphates"], "article_id"=>744188, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathalie Bardet", "Nour-Eddine Jalil", "France de Lapparent de Broin", "Damien Germain", "Olivier Lambert", "Mbarek Amaghzaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maastrichtian_marine_reptile_diversity_in_the_Phosphates_of_Morocco_/744188", "title"=>"Maastrichtian marine reptile diversity in the Phosphates of Morocco.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-11 02:31:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117121"], "description"=>"<p>OCP DEK/GE 516, Holotype, Phosphates (Upper Level III, Upper Maastrichtian, uppermost Cretaceous), Sidi Chennane area (Oulad Abdoun Basin, Morocco). Photographs. <b>Abbreviation</b>: pr tro ot, <i>processus trochlearis oticus</i>. Scale = 20 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Zoology", "Herpetology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Marine biology", "paleobiology", "et", "anterior", "posterior", "views"], "article_id"=>744183, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathalie Bardet", "Nour-Eddine Jalil", "France de Lapparent de Broin", "Damien Germain", "Olivier Lambert", "Mbarek Amaghzaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ocepechelon_bouyai_gen_et_sp_nov_anterior_left_and_posterior_right_views_of_the_skull_/744183", "title"=>"<i>Ocepechelon bouyai</i> gen. et sp. nov., anterior (left) and posterior (right) views of the skull.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-11 02:31:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117122"], "description"=>"<p>OCP DEK/GE 516, Holotype, Phosphates (Upper Level III, Upper Maastrichtian, uppermost Cretaceous), Sidi Chennane area (Oulad Abdoun Basin, Morocco). <b>A</b>, lateroventral view of the skull (left side), showing the <i>processus trochlearis oticus</i> above the <i>processus articularis quadrati</i>. <b>B</b>, posteroventral view of the skull (left side) showing the widely opened <i>fenestra postotica</i>. <b>Abbreviations</b>: c occ, <i>condylus occipitalis</i>; fj, <i>foramen jugulare posterior</i>; fm, <i>foramen magnum</i>; fpci, <i>foramen posterior canalis carotici interni</i>; fpost, <i>fenestra postotica</i>; pr art q, <i>processus articularis quadrati</i>; pr tro ot, <i>processus trochelearis oticus</i>; pt fl, pterygoid flanges; Q, <i>processus articularis quadrati</i>. Scale = 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Zoology", "Herpetology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Marine biology", "paleobiology", "et", "details"], "article_id"=>744184, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathalie Bardet", "Nour-Eddine Jalil", "France de Lapparent de Broin", "Damien Germain", "Olivier Lambert", "Mbarek Amaghzaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ocepechelon_bouyai_gen_et_sp_nov_details_of_the_skull_/744184", "title"=>"<i>Ocepechelon bouyai</i> gen. et sp. nov., details of the skull.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-11 02:31:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117120"], "description"=>"<p>OCP DEK/GE 516, Holotype, Phosphates (Upper Level III, Upper Maastrichtian, uppermost Cretaceous), Sidi Chennane area (Oulad Abdoun Basin, Morocco). Photograph and interpretative drawing. <b>Abbreviations</b>: En, external nare; Fr, frontal; Ica, <i>incisura columellae auris</i>; Ju, jugal; Mx, maxilla; Na, nasal; Pa, parietal; Pal, palatine; Pfr, prefrontal; Pmx, premaxilla; Po, postorbital; Pt, pterygoid; Q, quadrate; Qj, quadratojugal; Ra, marks of the rhamphotheca; Sq, squamosal. Scale = 20 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Zoology", "Herpetology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Marine biology", "paleobiology", "et", "lateral"], "article_id"=>744182, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathalie Bardet", "Nour-Eddine Jalil", "France de Lapparent de Broin", "Damien Germain", "Olivier Lambert", "Mbarek Amaghzaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ocepechelon_bouyai_gen_et_sp_nov_right_lateral_view_of_the_skull_/744182", "title"=>"<i>Ocepechelon bouyai</i> gen. et sp. nov., right lateral view of the skull.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-11 02:31:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1117116"], "description"=>"<p><i>Ocepechelon</i> has been found in the Upper Level III (Upper Maastrichtian) phosphatic deposits of the Sidi Chennane area, SE part of the Oulad Abdoun Basin, central Morocco. <b>A</b>, general geographical map of Morocco showing the main phosphatic basins (Ganntour and Oulad Abdoun basins); <b>B</b>, details of the Oulad Abdoun Basin with the northeastern main exploited areas (Daoui, Meraa El Arach, Sidi Chennane); <b>C</b>, synthetical stratigraphical column of the Maastrichtian phosphatic series in the northeastern part of the Oulad Abdoun Basin. <b>Abbreviations</b> : LLIII, Lower Level III; ULIII, Upper Level III; Ph, phosphates; Ma, marls; Li, limestones. The black star indicates the stratigraphical occurrence of <i>Ocepechelon bouyai</i> gen. et sp. nov.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Zoology", "Herpetology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Marine biology", "paleobiology", "et", "geographical", "stratigraphical"], "article_id"=>744178, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathalie Bardet", "Nour-Eddine Jalil", "France de Lapparent de Broin", "Damien Germain", "Olivier Lambert", "Mbarek Amaghzaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063586.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ocepechelon_bouyai_gen_et_sp_nov_geographical_and_stratigraphical_occurrence_/744178", "title"=>"<i>Ocepechelon bouyai</i> gen. et sp. nov., geographical and stratigraphical occurrence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-11 02:31:06"}

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Relative Metric

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