Burying Dogs in Ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: Temporal Trends and Relationships with Human Diet and Subsistence Practices
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{"title"=>"Burying Dogs in Ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: Temporal Trends and Relationships with Human Diet and Subsistence Practices", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert J.", "last_name"=>"Losey", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602417931"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandra", "last_name"=>"Garvie-Lok", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506245751"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer A.", "last_name"=>"Leonard", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402283113"}, {"first_name"=>"M. Anne", "last_name"=>"Katzenberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602084040"}, {"first_name"=>"Mietje", "last_name"=>"Germonpré", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602438625"}, {"first_name"=>"Tatiana", "last_name"=>"Nomokonova", "scopus_author_id"=>"23470010200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mikhail V.", "last_name"=>"Sablin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507924182"}, {"first_name"=>"Olga I.", "last_name"=>"Goriunova", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507700864"}, {"first_name"=>"Natalia E.", "last_name"=>"Berdnikova", "scopus_author_id"=>"55707335800"}, {"first_name"=>"Nikolai A.", "last_name"=>"Savel'ev", "scopus_author_id"=>"8250582900"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23696851", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0063740", "sgr"=>"84877848501", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877848501", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368937313"}, "id"=>"209c9d87-32c9-3ace-918c-5a5eef2e3097", "abstract"=>"The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/burying-dogs-ancient-cisbaikal-siberia-temporal-trends-relationships-human-diet-subsistence-practice", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>11, "Philosophy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>14, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>14}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>11}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Hungary"=>2, "Poland"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063361"], "description"=>"<p>Context information and radiocarbon dating data for Priol’khon’e canid remains.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "radiocarbon", "dating", "canid"], "article_id"=>704649, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Context_information_and_radiocarbon_dating_data_for_Priol_8217_khon_8217_e_canid_remains_/704649", "title"=>"Context information and radiocarbon dating data for Priol’khon’e canid remains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063331"], "description"=>"<p>The cranium of the Ust’-Khaita canid with the location of the partially healed puncture to the cranium indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "cranium", "canid", "healed", "puncture"], "article_id"=>704629, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_cranium_of_the_Ust_8217_Khaita_canid_with_the_location_of_the_partially_healed_puncture_to_the_cranium_indicated_/704629", "title"=>"The cranium of the Ust’-Khaita canid with the location of the partially healed puncture to the cranium indicated.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063353"], "description"=>"<p>Linear regression for human values (y = 0.929x +28.692, R2 = 0.846; N = 119) and canid values (y = 0.399x +17.958, R2 = 0.864; N = 8) indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "humans", "canids", "angara"], "article_id"=>704642, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_13_C_and_948_15_N_values_for_humans_and_canids_from_the_Angara_River_area_/704642", "title"=>"Plot of δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>15</sup>N values for humans and canids from the Angara River area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063338"], "description"=>"<p>Stone and bone implements are present near and under the cranium, and a round pebble is visible within the mouth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "kalashnikova"], "article_id"=>704632, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pad_8217_Kalashnikova_dog_from_pit_2_under_excavation_/704632", "title"=>"Pad’ Kalashnikova dog from pit #2 under excavation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063357"], "description"=>"<p>Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for Angara River/South Baikal area canids analyzed in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "carbon", "nitrogen", "isotope", "angara", "baikal", "canids"], "article_id"=>704645, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stable_carbon_and_nitrogen_isotope_values_for_Angara_River_South_Baikal_area_canids_analyzed_in_this_study_/704645", "title"=>"Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for Angara River/South Baikal area canids analyzed in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063349"], "description"=>"<p>Just below the dog were the cranium, mandible and lower leg bones of a calf. These calf remains may have been left attached to the hide and used to wrap the dog, which appears to have been a sacrificed animal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "todakta", "interment", "excavation"], "article_id"=>704638, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Todakta_I_dog_interment_under_excavation_72_/704638", "title"=>"The Todakta I dog interment under excavation [72].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063341"], "description"=>"<p>Figure shows the skeleton of one dog placed above and to the right of the human burial, and a second dog skeleton present to the left of the human body. Note that the sewn birch bark sheet separating the human remains and the dog skeletons is not visible in this illustration, but several of the birch poles that were below this sheet are depicted on the chest of the underlying human burial. Redrawn from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740#pone.0063740-Konopatskii1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "shamanksii"], "article_id"=>704635, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_grave_3_1972_at_Shamanksii_Mys_/704635", "title"=>"Illustration of grave #3 (1972) at Shamanksii Mys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063360"], "description"=>"*<p>data not available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "radiocarbon", "dating", "baikal", "canid"], "article_id"=>704648, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Context_information_and_radiocarbon_dating_data_for_Angara_South_Baikal_canid_remains_/704648", "title"=>"Context information and radiocarbon dating data for Angara/South Baikal canid remains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063367"], "description"=>"<div><p>The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region’s dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7–8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (<i>Phoca sibirica</i>). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region’s human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "dogs", "temporal", "trends", "relationships", "subsistence"], "article_id"=>704654, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burying_Dogs_in_Ancient_Cis_Baikal_Siberia_Temporal_Trends_and_Relationships_with_Human_Diet_and_Subsistence_Practices_/704654", "title"=>"Burying Dogs in Ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: Temporal Trends and Relationships with Human Diet and Subsistence Practices", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063363"], "description"=>"a<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740#pone.0063740-Germonpr1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740#pone.0063740-Germonpr2\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>.</p>b<p>This study, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740#pone.0063740-Germonpr1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>.</p>c<p>This study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "cranial", "lengths", "cis-baikal", "canids"], "article_id"=>704651, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_cranial_lengths_of_Cis_Baikal_canids_with_modern_and_ancient_canids_/704651", "title"=>"Comparison of cranial lengths of Cis-Baikal canids with modern and ancient canids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063335"], "description"=>"<p>The dogs form the previously identified four clades (labeled dog clades I–IV) within the diversity of wolves. Specimen 2010-19 is Ust’-Belaia dog 2 in the text, 2010-021 is Ust’-Belaia dog 3, 2010-023 Pad’ Kalashnikova dog 1, 1997.282 Khotoruk, and 2010-001 Ulan-Khada.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "phylogeny", "dogs", "wolves", "rooted", "coyotes"], "article_id"=>704631, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maximum_likelihood_phylogeny_of_recent_and_ancient_dogs_and_wolves_prefix_lu_rooted_with_coyotes_prefix_la_/704631", "title"=>"Maximum likelihood phylogeny of recent and ancient dogs and wolves (prefix lu), rooted with coyotes (prefix la).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063355"], "description"=>"<p>Plot of δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>15</sup>N values for humans and dogs from the Priol’khon’e area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "humans", "dogs"], "article_id"=>704644, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_13_C_and_948_15_N_values_for_humans_and_dogs_from_the_Priol_8217_khon_8217_e_area_/704644", "title"=>"Plot of δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>15</sup>N values for humans and dogs from the Priol’khon’e area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063352"], "description"=>"<p>Plot of δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>15</sup>N values for humans and a dog buried at the Shamanka II cemetery.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "humans", "buried", "shamanka", "ii"], "article_id"=>704641, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_13_C_and_948_15_N_values_for_humans_and_a_dog_buried_at_the_Shamanka_II_cemetery_/704641", "title"=>"Plot of δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>15</sup>N values for humans and a dog buried at the Shamanka II cemetery.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063340"], "description"=>"<p>The dog was interred wearing a necklace of four red deer canine teeth pendants and placed beside its body were various faunal remains. Redrawn from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740#pone.0063740-Krizhevskaia1\" target=\"_blank\">[67]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "burial"], "article_id"=>704634, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_dog_burial_1_at_Ust_8217_Belaia_/704634", "title"=>"Illustration of dog burial #1 at Ust’-Belaia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063359"], "description"=>"<p>Dog burial trends by culture history period are indicated in the right two columns. Periods prior to the Late Bronze Age are thought to include only foraging groups, with pastoralist arriving around 3400 cal. BP.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "holocene"], "article_id"=>704647, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simplified_Holocene_culture_history_model_for_Cis_Baikal_/704647", "title"=>"Simplified Holocene culture history model for Cis-Baikal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063345"], "description"=>"<p>Remains of a secondary dog burial within the upper portion of a human grave at Uliarba II.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "burial", "uliarba"], "article_id"=>704637, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Remains_of_a_secondary_dog_burial_within_the_upper_portion_of_a_human_grave_at_Uliarba_II_/704637", "title"=>"Remains of a secondary dog burial within the upper portion of a human grave at Uliarba II.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063362"], "description"=>"*<p>Measurements taken by holding unfused epiphyses in place.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "cis-baikal", "vdd"], "article_id"=>704650, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metric_data_for_Cis_Baikal_canids_VDD_measurements_follow_73_MY_measurements_are_from_74_Long_bone_measurements_are_greatest_length_following_73_/704650", "title"=>"Metric data for Cis-Baikal canids. VDD measurements follow [73], MY measurements are from [74]. Long bone measurements are greatest length, following [73].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063334"], "description"=>"<p>Previously published sequences are in white and the ancient Baikal dogs presented here are in the shaded ovals. The American clade has been collapsed and is represented by the oval labeled “American clade”. Each link represents a single mutation, and bars across them additional mutations. The black circle represents a hypothetical haplotype. Not all alternative links are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "spanning", "haplotypes", "clade"], "article_id"=>704630, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Minimum_spanning_network_of_haplotypes_in_dog_clade_I_/704630", "title"=>"Minimum spanning network of haplotypes in dog clade I.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063329"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740#pone-0063740-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1a</a>. Location of study area within the Russian Federation. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740#pone-0063740-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1b</a>. Site locations mentioned in the text. Numbers 1–8 are in the Angara River/South Baikal region, and numbers 9–17 are in Priol’khon’e: 1. Shamanka II, 2. Lokomotiv, 3. Kitoi, 4. Ust’-Khaita, 5. Ust’-Belaia, 6. Pad Lenkovka, 7. Pad Kalashnikova, 8. Ust’-Ida, 9. Bugul’deika II, 10. Khotoruk, 11. Ulan-Khada, 12. Uliarba II, 13. Sarminskii Mys, 14. Khuzhir-Nuge XIV, 15. Kurma XI, 16. Shamanskii Mys, 17. Todakta I.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating"], "article_id"=>704627, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_study_area_/704627", "title"=>"Map of the study area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063366"], "description"=>"a<p>This study.</p>b<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740#pone.0063740-Meachen1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>c<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740#pone.0063740-BoudadiMagali1\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "cis-baikal", "canid", "lengths", "heights", "estimates", "regression", "equations"], "article_id"=>704653, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_Cis_Baikal_canid_long_bone_lengths_with_those_of_modern_and_ancient_wolves_and_large_northern_dogs_Shoulder_heights_are_estimates_based_on_regression_equations_on_long_bone_lengths_32_/704653", "title"=>"Comparison of Cis-Baikal canid long bone lengths with those of modern and ancient wolves, and large northern dogs. Shoulder heights are estimates based on regression equations on long bone lengths [32].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063358"], "description"=>"<p>Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for Priol’kon’e canids analyzed in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "carbon", "nitrogen", "isotope", "canids"], "article_id"=>704646, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stable_carbon_and_nitrogen_isotope_values_for_Priol_8217_kon_8217_e_canids_analyzed_in_this_study_/704646", "title"=>"Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for Priol’kon’e canids analyzed in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063339"], "description"=>"<p>This dog was buried in a crouched or sitting position.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "kalasnikova"], "article_id"=>704633, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pad_8217_Kalasnikova_dog_from_pit_1_/704633", "title"=>"Pad’ Kalasnikova dog from pit #1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1063350"], "description"=>"<p>Green squares represent archaeological ungulates; green hexagons are modern Eurasian ground squirrel and hare; white circles are modern Angara fish; blue triangles are modern fish from the open Baikal coast; blue squares modern fish from the Little Sea of Lake Baikal; white triangles modern Lena River fish; pink triangles archaeological Baikal seals. Modern samples are adjusted by 1.0‰ on the carbon scale to compensate for the industrial isotope effect.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Ethnobiology", "Physical anthropology", "Social anthropology", "archaeology", "Archaeological excavation", "archaeometry", "Historical archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "cis-baikal", "mammals"], "article_id"=>704639, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert J. Losey", "Sandra Garvie-Lok", "Jennifer A. Leonard", "M. Anne Katzenberg", "Mietje Germonpré", "Tatiana Nomokonova", "Mikhail V. Sablin", "Olga I. Goriunova", "Natalia E. Berdnikova", "Nikolai A. Savel’ev"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063740.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>58, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_13_C_and_948_15_N_values_for_select_Cis_Baikal_mammals_and_fish_/704639", "title"=>"Plot of δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>15</sup>N values for select Cis-Baikal mammals and fish.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-17 01:17:19"}

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Relative Metric

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