Trends in Ocean Colour and Chlorophyll Concentration from 1889 to 2000, Worldwide
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{"title"=>"Trends in Ocean Colour and Chlorophyll Concentration from 1889 to 2000, Worldwide", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marcel R.", "last_name"=>"Wernand", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603124273"}, {"first_name"=>"Hendrik J.", "last_name"=>"van der Woerd", "scopus_author_id"=>"35617645200"}, {"first_name"=>"Winfried W.C.", "last_name"=>"Gieskes", "scopus_author_id"=>"56187834500"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23776435", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0063766", "pui"=>"369102534", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84878930508", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878930508"}, "id"=>"9d944f43-5837-3475-813e-d1cf8f2eedf8", "abstract"=>"Marine primary productivity is an important agent in the global cycling of carbon dioxide, a major 'greenhouse gas', and variations in the concentration of the ocean's phytoplankton biomass can therefore explain trends in the global carbon budget. Since the launch of satellite-mounted sensors globe-wide monitoring of chlorophyll, a phytoplankton biomass proxy, became feasible. Just as satellites, the Forel-Ule (FU) scale record (a hardly explored database of ocean colour) has covered all seas and oceans--but already since 1889. We provide evidence that changes of ocean surface chlorophyll can be reconstructed with confidence from this record. The EcoLight radiative transfer numerical model indicates that the FU index is closely related to chlorophyll concentrations in open ocean regions. The most complete FU record is that of the North Atlantic in terms of coverage over space and in time; this dataset has been used to test the validity of colour changes that can be translated to chlorophyll. The FU and FU-derived chlorophyll data were analysed for monotonously increasing or decreasing trends with the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, a method to establish the presence of a consistent trend. Our analysis has not revealed a globe-wide trend of increase or decrease in chlorophyll concentration during the past century; ocean regions have apparently responded differentially to changes in meteorological, hydrological and biological conditions at the surface, including potential long-term trends related to global warming. Since 1889, chlorophyll concentrations have decreased in the Indian Ocean and in the Pacific; increased in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, the Chinese Sea, and in the seas west and north-west of Japan. This suggests that explanations of chlorophyll changes over long periods should focus on hydrographical and biological characteristics typical of single ocean regions, not on those of 'the' ocean.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/trends-ocean-colour-chlorophyll-concentration-1889-2000-worldwide", "reader_count"=>72, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>16, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>25, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>25}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>16}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083856"], "description"=>"<p>The selected 67581 <i>FU</i>-observations extracted under the basin mask BM2, binned per sea area and per season.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "67581", "extracted", "basin", "binned"], "article_id"=>717485, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_selected_67581_FU_observations_extracted_under_the_basin_mask_BM2_binned_per_sea_area_and_per_season_/717485", "title"=>"The selected 67581 <i>FU</i>-observations extracted under the basin mask BM2, binned per sea area and per season.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083869"], "description"=>"<p>The map shows a CDOM index <0.5 with the lowest oceanic chlorophyll concentrations of ≈ 0.02 mg m<sup>−3</sup> in the South Pacific (white box left). The small white box at the top indicates the open water of the Barents Sea with a CDOM index ≈3.5 and chlorophyll concentrations ≈ 5 mg m<sup>−3</sup>. Source: level 3 browse, <a href=\"http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/\" target=\"_blank\">http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "modis", "composite", "cdom", "chlorophyll-a", "july", "jun"], "article_id"=>717498, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>216, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_entire_MODIS_mission_composite_map_of_the_CDOM_Index_and_chlorophyll_a_concentration_4_July_2002_8211_30_Jun_2010_/717498", "title"=>"An entire MODIS mission composite map of the CDOM Index and chlorophyll-a concentration (4 July 2002–30 Jun 2010).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083882"], "description"=>"<p>The table shows from left to right: the seas for which <i>FU</i> data was collected, its abbreviation, the total number of observations, the observations per season (Winter (W), Spring (Sp), Summer (S) and Autumn (A)) with the percentage of the total number of observations. Seas discussed in this article are in bold italic. Observations of the inland Caspian Sea (465 obs.) are filtered out using BM1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "contained"], "article_id"=>717511, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_distribution_of_FU_observations_contained_within_dataset_1_/717511", "title"=>"The distribution of <i>FU</i>-observations contained within dataset-1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083850"], "description"=>"<p>Data is binned per season and per decade except for the first period of 11 years from 1889–99. Notice: the period 1900 to 1929 contain zero or a limited number of observations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "temporal", "221110", "contained", "dataset-0", "1889"], "article_id"=>717478, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_temporal_distribution_of_the_total_number_of_221110_FU_observations_contained_within_dataset_0_for_the_period_1889_to_1999_/717478", "title"=>"The temporal distribution of the total number of 221110 <i>FU</i>-observations contained within dataset-0 for the period 1889 to 1999.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083846"], "description"=>"<p>The sailing track of the steamship ‘<i>National</i>’ is shown in black. The colour (Wasserfarbe) was indicated as a percentage of a yellow potassium chromate solution added to a blue copper-sulphate solution. The legend indicates the <i>FU</i>-scale colours 1 to 21.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "contoured", "atlantic"], "article_id"=>717475, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kr_mmel_s_contoured_North_Atlantic_FU_map_1889_/717475", "title"=>"Krümmel's contoured North Atlantic <i>FU</i>-map (1889).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083865"], "description"=>"<p> a – The BM2 (circles) and BM3 (squares) extracted <i>FU</i> data with error bars show the same pattern and reveal the North Atlantic spring bloom. On the secondary axes, indicated with green line/circles, the modelled chlorophyll (see Eq. 1) with error bars is shown. b – The modelled chlorophyll for the period 1980–1991, compared to CZCS- (1979–1988) and SeaWiFS (1997–2000) derived chlorophyll, blended with in-situ data, as presented by Gregg and Conkright, 2002).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "atlantic", "chlorophyll", "periods"], "article_id"=>717494, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representation_of_North_Atlantic_monthly_and_chlorophyll_for_the_periods_1889_1999_a_and_1980_1990_b_only_chlorophyll_/717494", "title"=>"Representation of North Atlantic monthly and chlorophyll for the periods 1889–1999 (a) and 1980–1990 (b, only chlorophyll).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083875"], "description"=>"<p> A sea with no significant trend is indicated by a black line. Regression coefficients are indicated at the top of each graph.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "arithmetic", "superposed", "weighted", "least-squares", "regression", "lines", "bluing", "greening", "observations"], "article_id"=>717504, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sea_trends_the_arithmetic_mean_FU_values_per_year_with_the_no_of_obs_with_superposed_lines_weighted_no_of_obs_least_squares_regression_lines_blue_or_green_line_indicate_a_bluing_trend_or_greening_trend_of_a_sea_the_95_confidence_interval_of_the_mean_dott/717504", "title"=>"Sea trends: the arithmetic mean <i>FU</i> values () per year (with the no. of obs.) with superposed lines; weighted (no. of obs.) least-squares regression lines (blue or green line) indicate a bluing trend or greening trend of a sea, the 95% confidence interval of the mean (dotted line) and of the observations (solid line).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083881"], "description"=>"<p>Chlorophyll could be slightly overestimated due to the presence of CDOM. Chlorophyll values for the Mediterranean increased from the first to last decade by a factor of nearly 4.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "mediterranean", "weighted", "linear", "regression", "modelled", "assuming", "oligotrophic"], "article_id"=>717510, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Mediterranean_weighted_linear_regression_with_modelled_chlorophyll_assuming_an_oligotrophic_case_1_classification_/717510", "title"=>"The Mediterranean weighted linear regression with modelled chlorophyll, assuming an oligotrophic (case 1) classification.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083858"], "description"=>"<p>In panel (a) only the input chlorophyll concentration is varied between 0.1 and 40 mg m<sup>−3</sup>. For case 2 waters the input CDOM<sub>440</sub> absorption (a<sub>440</sub>) is varied between 0.01 and 1.00 m<sup>−1</sup> with chlorophyll and mineral concentration of both 0 (panel b), fixed chlorophyll concentration of 0.1 mg m<sup>−3</sup> and a mineral concentration of 0 (panel c) and fixed chlorophyll concentration of 0.1 mg m<sup>−3</sup> and a mineral concentration of 0.2 g m<sup>−3</sup> (panel d). From these <i>R</i><sub>RS</sub> spectral signatures the chromaticity coordinate set and <i>FU</i> number were calculated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "ecolight", "modelled", "waters"], "article_id"=>717487, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_the_Ecolight_modelled_R_RS_sr_8722_1_for_case_1_waters_panel_a_and_case_2_waters_panels_b_c_and_d_with_variable_composition_see_also_Table_4_/717487", "title"=>"Examples of the Ecolight modelled <i>R</i><sub>RS</sub> (sr<sup>−1</sup>) for case 1 waters (panel a) and case 2 waters (panels b, c and d) with variable composition (see also <b>Table 4</b>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083871"], "description"=>"<p> A sea with no significant trend is indicated by a black line. Regression coefficients are indicated at the top of each graph.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "arithmetic", "derived", "chlorophyll", "superposed", "weighted", "least-squares", "regression", "lines", "bluing", "greening", "observations"], "article_id"=>717500, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ocean_trends_The_arithmetic_mean_derived_chlorophyll_concentration_per_year_with_the_no_of_obs_with_superposed_lines_weighted_no_of_obs_least_squares_regression_lines_blue_or_green_line_indicate_a_bluing_trend_or_greening_trend_of_a_sea_the_95_confidence/717500", "title"=>"Ocean trends: The arithmetic mean derived chlorophyll concentration per year (with the no. of obs.) with superposed lines: weighted (no. of obs.) least-squares regression lines (blue or green line) indicate a bluing trend or greening trend of a sea, the 95% confidence interval of the mean (dotted line) and of the observations (solid line).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083861"], "description"=>"<p>The <i>FU</i>-numbers were derived from the Ecolight <i>R</i><sub>RS</sub> spectra. In the left panel (A), chlorophyll was varied from 0.1 to 40 mg m<sup>−3</sup> with a resulting span of <i>FU</i>1 to <i>FU</i>10. For case 2 waters (panel B), the relationship between CDOM and <i>FU</i> was calculated for three combinations of chlorophyll concentration (0 or 0.1 mg m<sup>−3</sup>) and mineral concentration (0 or 0.2 g m<sup>−3</sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "cdom", "attenuation", "440", "nm"], "article_id"=>717490, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chlorophyll_concentration_and_CDOM_attenuation_at_440_nm_as_a_function_of_FU_number_/717490", "title"=>"Chlorophyll concentration and CDOM attenuation at 440 nm as a function of <i>FU</i>-number.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083884"], "description"=>"<p>Specifications of the four components used in the Ecolight model for concentration ranges, inherent optical properties and atmosphere.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "components", "ecolight", "optical"], "article_id"=>717513, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Specifications_of_the_four_components_used_in_the_Ecolight_model_for_concentration_ranges_inherent_optical_properties_and_atmosphere_/717513", "title"=>"Specifications of the four components used in the Ecolight model for concentration ranges, inherent optical properties and atmosphere.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083851"], "description"=>"<p>Example (around Japan) of three defined masks to extract <i>FU</i>-observations; in white the BM1 mask starting at the land/sea boundary spreading over the whole sea with on top of this layer, in dark grey, BM2 starting at a distances of >100 km off land and on top of this layer BM3, a layer in black, starting at a distance of 500 km off land.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "defined", "masks", "extract", "bm1", "spreading", "bm2", "distances", "km", "500"], "article_id"=>717480, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_around_Japan_of_three_defined_masks_to_extract_FU_observations_in_white_the_BM1_mask_starting_at_the_land_sea_boundary_spreading_over_the_whole_sea_with_on_top_of_this_layer_in_dark_grey_BM2_starting_at_a_distances_of_100_km_off_land_and_on_top_o/717480", "title"=>"Example (around Japan) of three defined masks to extract <i>FU</i>-observations; in white the BM1 mask starting at the land/sea boundary spreading over the whole sea with on top of this layer, in dark grey, BM2 starting at a distances of >100 km off land and on top of this layer BM3, a layer in black, starting at a distance of 500 km off land.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083877"], "description"=>"<p> A sea with no significant trend is indicated by a black line. Regression coefficients are indicated at the top of each graph.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "arithmetic", "superposed", "weighted", "least-squares", "regression", "lines", "bluing", "greening", "observations"], "article_id"=>717506, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sea_trends_the_arithmetic_mean_FU_values_per_year_with_the_no_of_obs_with_superposed_lines_weighted_no_of_obs_least_squares_regression_lines_blue_or_green_line_indicate_a_bluing_trend_or_greening_trend_of_a_sea_the_95_confidence_interval_of_the_mean_dott/717506", "title"=>"Sea trends: the arithmetic mean <i>FU</i> values () per year (with the no. of obs.) with superposed lines; weighted (no. of obs.) least-squares regression lines (blue or green line) indicate a bluing trend or greening trend of a sea, the 95% confidence interval of the mean (dotted line) and of the observations (solid line).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083854"], "description"=>"<p>The selected 21302 <i>FU</i>-observations extracted under the ocean mask BM3, binned per sea area and per season.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "21302", "extracted", "binned"], "article_id"=>717483, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_selected_21302_FU_observations_extracted_under_the_ocean_mask_BM3_binned_per_sea_area_and_per_season_/717483", "title"=>"The selected 21302 <i>FU</i>-observations extracted under the ocean mask BM3, binned per sea area and per season.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083867"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766#pone-0063766-t004\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 4</b></a><b>).</b> The Barents Sea is the most greenish sea (bottom) and the Equatorial Pacific is the most bluish ocean (top).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "seas", "arranged", "calculated", "observations", "extracted", "bm2", "bm3"], "article_id"=>717496, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representation_of_the_oceans_and_seas_identified_and_arranged_in_terms_of_their_colour_as_calculated_from_all_available_observations_extracted_under_BM2_or_BM3_see_/717496", "title"=>"Representation of the oceans and seas identified and arranged in terms of their colour as calculated from all available observations extracted under BM2 or BM3 (see", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083880"], "description"=>"<p>Trends are indicated by a B (bluing) or a G (greening). Preceding columns show the regression coefficient <i>a</i>, with delta <i>a</i>, Kendall's tau, the two-tailed p-value (with a significance level of α = 0.05). The columns with the heading <i>FU</i> show the calculated start and end <i>FU</i> value over the span of the trend as indicated in the column named Period (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766#pone-0063766-g015\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 15</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766#pone-0063766-g016\" target=\"_blank\">16</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "weighted", "linear", "regression", "mann-kendall"], "article_id"=>717509, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_weighted_linear_regression_modelling_and_the_Mann_Kendall_trend_test_for_the_seas_/717509", "title"=>"Results of the weighted linear regression modelling and the Mann-Kendall trend test for the seas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083873"], "description"=>"<p> A sea with no significant trend is indicated by a black line. Regression coefficients are indicated at the top of each graph.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "arithmetic", "derived", "chlorophyll", "superposed", "weighted", "least-squares", "regression", "lines", "bluing", "greening", "observations"], "article_id"=>717502, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ocean_trends_the_arithmetic_mean_derived_chlorophyll_concentration_per_year_with_the_no_of_obs_with_superposed_lines_weighted_no_of_obs_least_squares_regression_lines_blue_or_green_line_indicate_a_bluing_trend_or_greening_trend_of_a_sea_the_95_confidence/717502", "title"=>"Ocean trends: the arithmetic mean derived chlorophyll concentration per year (with the no. of obs.) with superposed lines; weighted (no. of obs.) least-squares regression lines (blue or green line) indicate a bluing trend or greening trend of a sea, the 95% confidence interval of the mean (dotted line) and of the observations (solid line).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083883"], "description"=>"<p>Off-coast indicates the areas where <i>FU</i>-data were collected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "dataset", "unmasked", "data-extraction"], "article_id"=>717512, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_number_of_FU_observations_per_dataset_unmasked_and_obtained_by_the_use_of_3_data_extraction_masks_/717512", "title"=>"The number of <i>FU</i>-observations per dataset unmasked and obtained by the use of 3 data-extraction masks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083853"], "description"=>"<p>Oceans and seas are indicated by abbreviations as mentioned in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766#pone-0063766-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>. Red lines indicate the division of north and equatorial regions. Although the Mediterranean has a limited number of 237 observations, it was found to be important to analyse this sea for which data were already collected at the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "positions", "extracted", "km", "off-coast", "61434"], "article_id"=>717482, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_positions_of_FU_observations_extracted_at_a_distance_500_km_off_coast_and_at_a_distance_of_100_km_off_coast_resp_21971_obs_61434_obs_/717482", "title"=>"The positions of <i>FU</i>-observations extracted at a distance >500 km off-coast and at a distance of >100 km off-coast (resp.21971 obs.▴, 61434 obs.▵).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083866"], "description"=>"<p>The weight is set to a power of 2. The search radius is set to 4 degrees with an output grid size of 0.5 degrees. Data collection period covers 1889 to 1999.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "idw", "interpolation", "bm1", "clipped"], "article_id"=>717495, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_global_IDW_interpolation_of_BM1_clipped_FU_observations_/717495", "title"=>"A global IDW interpolation of BM1 clipped <i>FU</i> observations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:04:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083879"], "description"=>"<p>Trends are indicated by a B (bluing) or a G (greening). Preceding columns show the regression coefficient <i>a</i> with delta <i>a</i>, Kendall's tau, the two-tailed p-value (with a significance level of α = 0.05) The columns with the heading Chl show the calculated start and end chlorophyll value in mg m<sup>−3</sup> over the span of the trend as indicated in the column named Period (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766#pone-0063766-g013\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 13</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766#pone-0063766-g014\" target=\"_blank\">14</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Chemical oceanography", "Ocean properties", "oceans", "Atlantic Ocean", "Indian Ocean", "Pacific Ocean", "Water quality", "weighted", "linear", "regression", "mann-kendall"], "article_id"=>717508, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marcel R. Wernand", "Hendrik J. van der Woerd", "Winfried W. C. Gieskes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063766.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_weighted_linear_regression_modelling_and_the_Mann_Kendall_trend_test_for_the_oceans_/717508", "title"=>"Results of the weighted linear regression modelling and the Mann-Kendall trend test for the oceans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:08"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Hydrology", "average_usage"=>[253, 387, 495, 587, 670, 757, 847, 930, 1011, 1082, 1167, 1237, 1309]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Marine and aquatic sciences", "average_usage"=>[299, 492, 619, 718, 826, 932, 1037, 1143, 1246, 1333, 1414, 1517, 1575]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[250, 417, 535, 649, 758, 857, 952, 1036, 1113, 1206, 1287, 1353, 1429]}]}
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