Reactive Case Detection for Malaria Elimination: Real-Life Experience from an Ongoing Program in Swaziland
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{"title"=>"Reactive Case Detection for Malaria Elimination: Real-Life Experience from an Ongoing Program in Swaziland", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hugh J W", "last_name"=>"Sturrock", "scopus_author_id"=>"35146667400"}, {"first_name"=>"Joe M.", "last_name"=>"Novotny", "scopus_author_id"=>"54397496300"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Kunene", "scopus_author_id"=>"24171098200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sabelo", "last_name"=>"Dlamini", "scopus_author_id"=>"35769105100"}, {"first_name"=>"Zulisile", "last_name"=>"Zulu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55711146700"}, {"first_name"=>"Justin M.", "last_name"=>"Cohen", "scopus_author_id"=>"15123716300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle S.", "last_name"=>"Hsiang", "scopus_author_id"=>"34881667000"}, {"first_name"=>"Bryan", "last_name"=>"Greenhouse", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602908206"}, {"first_name"=>"Roly D.", "last_name"=>"Gosling", "scopus_author_id"=>"15750608700"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877893759", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "arxiv"=>"NIHMS150003", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0063830", "pui"=>"368942605", "sgr"=>"84877893759", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23700437"}, "id"=>"221dfa13-bad9-3476-903e-f0c24379d9dd", "abstract"=>"As countries move towards malaria elimination, methods to identify infections among populations who do not seek treatment are required. Reactive case detection, whereby individuals living in close proximity to passively detected cases are screened and treated, is one approach being used by a number of countries including Swaziland. An outstanding issue is establishing the epidemiologically and operationally optimal screening radius around each passively detected index case. Using data collected between December 2009 and June 2012 from reactive case detection (RACD) activities in Swaziland, we evaluated the effect of screening radius and other risk factors on the probability of detecting cases by reactive case detection. Using satellite imagery, we also evaluated the household coverage achieved during reactive case detection. Over the study period, 250 cases triggered RACD, which identified a further 74 cases, showing the value of RACD over passive surveillance alone. Results suggest that the odds of detecting a case within the household of the index case were significantly higher than in neighbouring households (odds ratio (OR) 13, 95% CI 3.1-54.4). Furthermore, cases were more likely to be detected when RACD was conducted within a week of the index presenting at a health facility (OR 8.7, 95% CI 1.1-66.4) and if the index household had not been sprayed with insecticide (OR sprayed vs not sprayed 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.46). The large number of households missed during RACD indicates that a 1 km screening radius may be impractical in such resource limited settings such as Swaziland. Future RACD in Swaziland could be made more effective by achieving high coverage amongst individuals located near to index cases and in areas where spraying has not been conducted. As well as allowing the programme to implement RACD more rapidly, this would help to more precisely define the optimal screening radius.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/reactive-case-detection-malaria-elimination-reallife-experience-ongoing-program-swaziland", "reader_count"=>71, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>24, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>24}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Philippines"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Thailand"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555981"], "description"=>"<p>A - Histogram of the number of households screened per index case (1 household indicates only the index household screened). B - Histogram of the time from presentation of the index case to the start of RACD.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Tropical diseases (non-neglected)", "Infectious disease control", "racd"], "article_id"=>1075651, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hugh J. W. Sturrock", "Joe M. Novotny", "Simon Kunene", "Sabelo Dlamini", "Zulisile Zulu", "Justin M. Cohen", "Michelle S. Hsiang", "Bryan Greenhouse", "Roly D. Gosling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063830.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Household_coverage_and_response_time_of_RACD_in_Swaziland_/1075651", "title"=>"Household coverage and response time of RACD in Swaziland.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-20 10:37:25"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555989"], "description"=>"<p><b>Error bars indicate the 95% confidence intervals (adjusted for intra-household correlation).</b></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Tropical diseases (non-neglected)", "Infectious disease control", "detecting", "distances"], "article_id"=>1075659, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hugh J. W. Sturrock", "Joe M. Novotny", "Simon Kunene", "Sabelo Dlamini", "Zulisile Zulu", "Justin M. Cohen", "Michelle S. Hsiang", "Bryan Greenhouse", "Roly D. Gosling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063830.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_detecting_a_secondary_case_within_different_search_distances_from_index_households_/1075659", "title"=>"Probability of detecting a secondary case within different search distances from index households.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-20 10:37:25"}
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Relative Metric

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