Colour Constancy Across the Life Span: Evidence for Compensatory Mechanisms
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{"title"=>"Colour Constancy Across the Life Span: Evidence for Compensatory Mechanisms", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sophie", "last_name"=>"Wuerger", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701640471"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877250817", "pui"=>"368876149", "pmid"=>"23667689", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0063921", "sgr"=>"84877250817"}, "id"=>"3f327095-c9fd-3009-bb4d-ba3735302c30", "abstract"=>"It is well known that the peripheral visual system declines with age: the yellowing of the lens causes a selective reduction of short-wavelength light and sensitivity losses occur in the cone receptor mechanisms. At the same time, our subjective experience of colour does not change with age. The main purpose of this large-scale study (n = 185) covering a wide age range of colour-normal observers (18-75 years of age) was to assess the extent to which the human visual system is able to compensate for the changes in the optical media and at which level of processing this compensation is likely to occur. We report two main results: (1) Supra-threshold parafoveal colour perception remains largely unaffected by the age-related changes in the optical media (yellowing of the lens) whereas our ability to discriminate between small colour differences is compromised with an increase in age. (2) Significant changes in colour appearance are only found for unique green settings under daylight viewing condition which is consistent with the idea that the yellow-blue mechanism is most affected by an increase in age due to selective attenuation of short-wavelength light. The data on the invariance of hue perception, in conjunction with the age-related decline in chromatic sensitivity, provides evidence for compensatory mechanisms that enable colour-normal human observers a large degree of colour constancy across the life span. These compensatory mechanisms are likely to originate at cortical sites.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/colour-constancy-across-life-span-evidence-compensatory-mechanisms", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Design"=>2, "Psychology"=>13, "Computer Science"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>13}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057041"], "description"=>"<p>Details are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921#pone-0063921-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>. Under D65, the cone coefficients associated with unique green are age-dependent (p<0.05; for L,M,S cone coefficients). Observed slopes that differ significantly from zero are indicated with a star (*). All predicted slopes are different from zero (p<0.001). The direction of the observed age-related changes (dashed lines; row 2) are predicted by the lens model (solid lines), but not the magnitude (cf <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921#pone-0063921-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neurophysiology", "Peripheral nervous system", "Sensory perception", "Psychophysics", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Mental health", "psychology", "ophthalmology", "Experimental psychology", "weightings"], "article_id"=>700384, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sophie Wuerger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cone_weightings_obtained_under_D65_/700384", "title"=>"Cone weightings obtained under D65.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:06:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057039"], "description"=>"<p>Thresholds along the protan (left most), deutan (middle) and tritan line (right most) is plotted as function of age for all 185 observers. A linear regression analysis revealed that the slope for all three sets of thresholds differs significantly from zero: Protan: slope = 0.004 R<sup>2</sup> = 0.119 p<0.001; Deutan: slope = 0.003 R<sup>2</sup> = 0.139 p<0.001; Tritan: slope = 0.254 R<sup>2</sup> = 0.258 p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neurophysiology", "Peripheral nervous system", "Sensory perception", "Psychophysics", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Mental health", "psychology", "ophthalmology", "Experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>700382, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sophie Wuerger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chromatic_sensitivity_as_a_function_of_age_/700382", "title"=>"Chromatic sensitivity as a function of age.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:06:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057035"], "description"=>"<p>The cone weightings obtained under the dark viewing conditions are shown as a function of age. The L,M,S cone weightings (columns 1–3) of the four chromatic mechanisms (YB<sub>R</sub>, YB<sub>G</sub>, RG<sub>Y</sub>, RG<sub>B</sub>) that are silenced by unique red (row 1), green (row 2), yellow (row 3), and blue (row 4) are plotted as open symbols (see Eq 1–4 for details). Dashed lines (OBS) indicate the best fitting straight line to the data; solid lines (PRED) are the predictions based on the lens model (see Experimental Procedures). None of the observed slopes differs significantly from zero (p<0.05), indicating that the unique hue settings do not change with age. All slopes predicted from the lens model, however, differ from zero (p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neurophysiology", "Peripheral nervous system", "Sensory perception", "Psychophysics", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Mental health", "psychology", "ophthalmology", "Experimental psychology", "weightings"], "article_id"=>700379, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sophie Wuerger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cone_weightings_as_a_function_of_age_/700379", "title"=>"Cone weightings as a function of age.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:06:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057033"], "description"=>"<p>Relative L,M,S cone absorptions as a function of age were derived from the lens model by Pokorny et al <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921#pone.0063921-Pokorny1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>. To calculate the age-related relative loss in the three cone classes (L,M,S), the tabulated 2-deg cone fundamentals derived by Stockmann and Sharpe <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921#pone.0063921-Stockman1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a> were multiplied with the linear lens transmission (up to 650 nm), for each year of age. The resulting loss in the L,M,S cone signals a function of age is normalised to unity at 32 years of age.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neurophysiology", "Peripheral nervous system", "Sensory perception", "Psychophysics", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Mental health", "psychology", "ophthalmology", "Experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>700378, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sophie Wuerger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lens_transmission_changes_as_a_function_of_age_/700378", "title"=>"Lens transmission changes as a function of age.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:06:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057047", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057049", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057051"], "description"=>"<div><p>It is well known that the peripheral visual system declines with age: the yellowing of the lens causes a selective reduction of short-wavelength light and sensitivity losses occur in the cone receptor mechanisms. At the same time, our subjective experience of colour does not change with age. The main purpose of this large-scale study (n = 185) covering a wide age range of colour-normal observers (18–75 years of age) was to assess the extent to which the human visual system is able to compensate for the changes in the optical media and at which level of processing this compensation is likely to occur. We report two main results: (1) Supra-threshold parafoveal colour perception remains largely unaffected by the age-related changes in the optical media (yellowing of the lens) whereas our ability to discriminate between small colour differences is compromised with an increase in age. (2) Significant changes in colour appearance are only found for unique green settings under daylight viewing condition which is consistent with the idea that the yellow-blue mechanism is most affected by an increase in age due to selective attenuation of short-wavelength light. The data on the invariance of hue perception, in conjunction with the age-related decline in chromatic sensitivity, provides evidence for compensatory mechanisms that enable colour-normal human observers a large degree of colour constancy across the life span. These compensatory mechanisms are likely to originate at cortical sites.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neurophysiology", "Peripheral nervous system", "Sensory perception", "Psychophysics", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Mental health", "psychology", "ophthalmology", "Experimental psychology", "constancy", "compensatory"], "article_id"=>700390, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sophie Wuerger"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Colour_Constancy_Across_the_Life_Span_Evidence_for_Compensatory_Mechanisms_/700390", "title"=>"Colour Constancy Across the Life Span: Evidence for Compensatory Mechanisms", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:06:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057044"], "description"=>"<p>Details are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921#pone-0063921-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. As for the dark viewing condition, the observed coefficients do not depend on age (p>0.05), whereas the lens model predicts significant age-related changes (p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neurophysiology", "Peripheral nervous system", "Sensory perception", "Psychophysics", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Mental health", "psychology", "ophthalmology", "Experimental psychology", "weightings"], "article_id"=>700387, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sophie Wuerger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cone_weightings_obtained_under_CWF_/700387", "title"=>"Cone weightings obtained under CWF.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:06:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057037"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Observed unique hue settings for the dark viewing conditions are shown as circles in Boynton-MacLeod chromaticity diagram for the younger age group (<30 y.o.a). Symbol size is proportional to the number of observations per data point. Dotted lines indicate the observed unique hue lines (summarised by the 1<sup>st</sup> principal component); the solid lines denote the predicted unique hue lines assuming the lens model by Pokorny et al.. The grey triangle is the average prediction for neutral grey settings, assuming the same lens model. For the younger age group, only very small hue shifts are expected assuming the lens model. All predictions are made with respect to a 32 old observer. (b). For the older age group (>60 y.o.a) large hue shifts are predicted under the lens model. The difference between the observed and predicted hue lines indicates the amount of compensation present in these hue judgements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neurophysiology", "Peripheral nervous system", "Sensory perception", "Psychophysics", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Mental health", "psychology", "ophthalmology", "Experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>700380, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sophie Wuerger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_between_the_lower_lt_30_y_o_a_and_the_upper_age_group_gt_60_y_o_a_/700380", "title"=>"Comparison between the lower (<30 y.o.a.) and the upper age group (>60 y.o.a).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:06:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057031"], "description"=>"<p>(a) 2-deg colour patches (test stimuli) are presented at an eccentricity of 4 degrees. To obtain unique red (or green) the observer is asked to click on that patch that contains neither yellow nor blue. Similarly, to obtain unique yellow (or blue), an annulus consisting of yellowish (or bluish) patches is displayed and the observer is asked to click on that patch that is neither red nor green. In a previous experiment, we confirmed that the hue settings are not affected by the arrangement of the hue patches; randomised and ordered hue patches yield the same mean results. (b) The chromatic properties of the test stimuli are shown in a 3D solid in CIELUV space. The outermost white line indicates the gamut of our monitor. On a particular trial, hues of similar saturation and brightness were displayed in an annulus (see a). E.g. To obtain unique red, reddish hues lying on an arc in the CIELUV space, are displayed and the observer is asked to select that reddish hue that is neither yellow nor blue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neurophysiology", "Peripheral nervous system", "Sensory perception", "Psychophysics", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Mental health", "psychology", "ophthalmology", "Experimental psychology", "modified", "hue"], "article_id"=>700376, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sophie Wuerger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_modified_hue_selection_task_/700376", "title"=>"The modified hue selection task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:06:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1057045"], "description"=>"<p>Slopes, coefficients of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) and the p-values for observed and predicted cone weightings (L COEFF, M COEFF, S COEFF) for all hues and all ambient illumination conditions (DARK, DAYLIGHT, COOL WHITE FLOURESCENT). Under the null hypothesis all slopes are zero, indicating no age dependency. All predicted slopes differ from zero (p<0.001; rows labelled with PRED). Observed slopes (rows labelled with OBS) are significantly different from zero (p<0.05) only for the unique green settings under D65. For all other hues and ambient illumination settings we find no age-related changes in perceived hue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neurophysiology", "Peripheral nervous system", "Sensory perception", "Psychophysics", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Mental health", "psychology", "ophthalmology", "Experimental psychology", "cone", "weightings"], "article_id"=>700388, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sophie Wuerger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063921.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dependency_of_cone_weightings_on_Observer_age_/700388", "title"=>"Dependency of cone weightings on Observer age.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-08 00:06:28"}

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Relative Metric

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