Particle-Cell Contact Enhances Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Particle-Cell Contact Enhances Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Olesja", "last_name"=>"Bondarenko", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005274668"}, {"first_name"=>"Angela", "last_name"=>"Ivask", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801321588"}, {"first_name"=>"Aleksandr", "last_name"=>"Käkinen", "scopus_author_id"=>"54405921700"}, {"first_name"=>"Imbi", "last_name"=>"Kurvet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506104049"}, {"first_name"=>"Anne", "last_name"=>"Kahru", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603910568"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0064060", "pmid"=>"23737965", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84878503340", "pui"=>"369039429", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878503340"}, "id"=>"f525af64-85f6-3201-8ee7-6ea9b2e7892d", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that antibacterial properties of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) are dictated by their dissolved fraction. However, dissolution-based concept alone does not fully explain the toxic potency of nanoparticulate silver compared to silver ions.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we demonstrated that the direct contact between bacterial cell and AgNPs' surface enhanced the toxicity of nanosilver. More specifically, cell-NP contact increased the cellular uptake of particle-associated Ag ions - the single and ultimate cause of toxicity. To prove that, we evaluated the toxicity of three different AgNPs (uncoated, PVP-coated and protein-coated) to six bacterial strains: Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and P. aeruginosa and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. While the toxicity of AgNO3 to these bacteria varied only slightly (the 4-h EC50 ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 mg Ag/l), the 4-h EC50 values of protein-coated AgNPs for various bacterial strains differed remarkably, from 0.35 to 46 mg Ag/l. By systematically comparing the intracellular and extracellular free Ag(+) liberated from AgNPs, we demonstrated that not only extracellular dissolution in the bacterial test environment but also additional dissolution taking place at the particle-cell interface played an essential role in antibacterial action of AgNPs. The role of the NP-cell contact in dictating the antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs was additionally proven by the following observations: (i) separation of bacterial cells from AgNPs by particle-impermeable membrane (cut-off 20 kDa, ∼4 nm) significantly reduced the toxicity of AgNPs and (ii) P. aeruginosa cells which tended to attach onto AgNPs, exhibited the highest sensitivity to all forms of nanoparticulate Ag.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide new insights into the mode of antibacterial action of nanosilver and explain some discrepancies in this field, showing that \"Ag-ion\" and \"particle-specific\" mechanisms are not controversial but, rather, are two faces of the same coin.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/particlecell-contact-enhances-antibacterial-activity-silver-nanoparticles", "reader_count"=>108, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>39, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>39, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>17, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>11, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Materials Science"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>10}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>11}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>17}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Iran"=>1, "Sri Lanka"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Croatia"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84878503340"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84878503340?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84878503340&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84878503340&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84878503340", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84878503340", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84878503340", "dc:title"=>"Particle-Cell Contact Enhances Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles", "dc:creator"=>"Bondarenko O.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"5", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-05-30", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"30 May 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0064060", "citedby-count"=>"154", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn", "affiliation-city"=>"Tallinn", "affiliation-country"=>"Estonia"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23737965", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e64060", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0064060", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"70", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"216"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"115"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"161"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"262"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"168"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"141"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"141"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"148"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"124"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"98"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"114"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"102"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"340"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070764"], "description"=>"<p>A: Transmission electron microscopy images of AgNPs. TEM image of collargol is reprinted from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060#pone.0064060-Blinova1\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a> with the permission of Springer. B: Stability of 10 mg/l nanoparticles suspensions in test medium (half-strength NaCl-free LB medium). After 0-h incubation (upper panel), all AgNPs suspensions scattered light upon the illumination by the laser pointer, indicating the presence of particles. After 4-h incubation (lower panel), the light scattering from uncoated nAg was negligible (comparable to that of the test medium with no AgNPs added) and settling of the particles was observed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Gram negative", "Gram positive", "Microbial control", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Material by attribute", "Nanomaterials", "Materials characterization", "nanotechnology", "statistics", "Biostatistics"], "article_id"=>709091, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Olesja Bondarenko", "Angela Ivask", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Imbi Kurvet", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_silver_nanoparticles_/709091", "title"=>"Characterization of silver nanoparticles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-30 02:31:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070765"], "description"=>"<p>nAg-PVP states for PVP-coated AgNPs and nAg-Col for collargol. Concentrations are nominal. Data represent the average ± SD (n = 3), p-values denote statistically significant differences between different bacteria (ANOVA).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Gram negative", "Gram positive", "Microbial control", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Material by attribute", "Nanomaterials", "Materials characterization", "nanotechnology", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "logarithmic", "formulations"], "article_id"=>709092, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Olesja Bondarenko", "Angela Ivask", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Imbi Kurvet", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_4_h_EC_50_values_endpoint_growth_inhibition_note_the_logarithmic_scale_for_different_silver_formulations_to_bacteria_/709092", "title"=>"4-h EC<sub>50</sub> values (endpoint: growth inhibition; note the logarithmic scale) for different silver formulations to bacteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-30 02:31:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070766"], "description"=>"<p>A: Dose-dependent induction of bioluminescence of Ag-biosensor <i>E. coli</i> MC1061 (pSLcueR/pDNPcopAlux) in response to silver formulations. The bioluminescence was measured after 4-h exposure (30°C, half-strength NaCl-free LB medium). The decreased bioluminescence at higher concentrations refers to the toxicity. Concentrations are nominal. B: Toxicity (4-h EC<sub>50</sub>) of silver nanoparticles and AgNO<sub>3</sub> to <i>E. coli</i> MC1061. EC<sub>50</sub> values based on nominal concentrations (open columns) are from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060#pone-0064060-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>; EC<sub>50</sub> values based on intracellular Ag ions (red columns) are re-calculated from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060#pone-0064060-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3A</a>. Data represent the average ± SD (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Gram negative", "Gram positive", "Microbial control", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Material by attribute", "Nanomaterials", "Materials characterization", "nanotechnology", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "mc1061"], "article_id"=>709093, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Olesja Bondarenko", "Angela Ivask", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Imbi Kurvet", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Response_of_Escherichia_coli_MC1061_to_silver_formulations_/709093", "title"=>"Response of <i>Escherichia coli</i> MC1061 to silver formulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-30 02:31:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070767"], "description"=>"<p>Intracellular Ag ions, extracellular dissolved Ag and extracellular Ag ions were quantified in <b>biotic</b> (left) as well <b>abiotic</b> (right) conditions. Ag-biosensor <i>E. coli</i> MC1061(pSLcueR/pDNPcopAlux) was exposed either to the 10 mg/l suspensions of AgNPs (biotic dissolution) or to the supernatants obtained after ultracentrifugation (390 000 g×60 min) of the respective AgNPs' suspensions (abiotic dissolution). Intracellular Ag ions were quantified as a function of increase of bioluminescence Ag-biosensor <i>E. coli</i> MC1061(pSLcueR/pDNPcopAlux), extracellular dissolved Ag was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and extracellular Ag ions by ion-selective electrode (Ag-ISE).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Gram negative", "Gram positive", "Microbial control", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Material by attribute", "Nanomaterials", "Materials characterization", "nanotechnology", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "dissolution"], "article_id"=>709094, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Olesja Bondarenko", "Angela Ivask", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Imbi Kurvet", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_the_experiment_to_study_dissolution_of_AgNPs_/709094", "title"=>"Schematic representation of the experiment to study dissolution of AgNPs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-30 02:31:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070768"], "description"=>"<p>A: Dissolved, free and intracellular Ag after 4-h direct cell-NP contact. Intracellular Ag<sup>+</sup> was quantified from bioluminescent response of <i>E. coli</i> MC1061 (pSLcueR/pDNPcopAlux) to AgNPs suspension. Extracellular dissolved Ag was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and free Ag<sup>+</sup> was measured by Ag-ion-selective electrode (Ag-ISE) from the test medium after settling of NPs and bacterial cells by ultracentrifugation at 390 000 g for 1 hour. B: Dissolved, free and intracellular Ag in abiotic conditions. Extracellular dissolved Ag (AAS), extracellular free Ag<sup>+</sup> (Ag-ISE) and intracellular Ag<sup>+</sup> (Ag-biosensor <i>E. coli</i> MC1061 (pSLcueR/pDNPcopAlux)) were measured from the test medium after settling of NPs by ultracentrifugation at 390 000 g for 1 hour. Data represent the average ± SD (n = 3). **p<0.01, ns – not significant (p>0.05) compared to abiotic dissolution according to two-tailed unpaired <i>t</i>-test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Gram negative", "Gram positive", "Microbial control", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Material by attribute", "Nanomaterials", "Materials characterization", "nanotechnology", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "intracellular", "concentrations", "ag", "biotic", "abiotic"], "article_id"=>709095, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Olesja Bondarenko", "Angela Ivask", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Imbi Kurvet", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dissolved_free_and_intracellular_concentrations_of_Ag_in_biotic_and_abiotic_conditions_/709095", "title"=>"Dissolved, free and intracellular concentrations of Ag in biotic and abiotic conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-30 02:31:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070769"], "description"=>"<p><i>Escherichia coli</i> MC1061 (A, C) and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> DS10-129 (B, D) upon exposure to collargol (nAg-Col; A, B) after 4 h in half-strength NaCl-free LB at 30°C in the direct contact with nanoparticles (rectangle) or being separated from particles by 20 kDa (4 nm) cut-off membrane (diamond). AgNO<sub>3</sub> was handled analogously to collargol and was used as a control (C, D). Data represent the average ± SD (n = 4).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Gram negative", "Gram positive", "Microbial control", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Material by attribute", "Nanomaterials", "Materials characterization", "nanotechnology", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "4-h", "collargol", "dialysis"], "article_id"=>709096, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Olesja Bondarenko", "Angela Ivask", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Imbi Kurvet", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacterial_growth_after_4_h_exposure_to_collargol_directly_and_through_the_dialysis_membrane_/709096", "title"=>"Bacterial growth after 4-h exposure to collargol directly and through the dialysis membrane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-30 02:31:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070770"], "description"=>"<p>UV-Vis spectra of AgNPs in half-strength NaCl-free LB medium without bacterial cells (dashed red line) or after exposure of bacterial cells to nAg-Col (solid line). Before measurement, bacterial cells and cell-associated nanoparticles were removed by centrifugation at 4 000 g for 5 minutes. The difference between dashed and continuous lines shows the co-precipitation of nAg-Col particles with bacterial cells. The representative figures from the three independent experiments are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Gram negative", "Gram positive", "Microbial control", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Material by attribute", "Nanomaterials", "Materials characterization", "nanotechnology", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "absorption", "spectra", "nag-col", "suspensions", "mg"], "article_id"=>709097, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Olesja Bondarenko", "Angela Ivask", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Imbi Kurvet", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>61, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_UV_visible_absorption_spectra_of_nAg_Col_suspensions_10_mg_Ag_l_with_or_without_bacteria_/709097", "title"=>"UV-visible absorption spectra of nAg-Col suspensions (10 mg Ag/l) with or without bacteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-30 02:31:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070772"], "description"=>"1<p>Mass fraction of the coating material, analyzed by thermogravimetry <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060#pone.0064060-Blinova1\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a>;</p>2<p>Measured from TEM micrographs using ImageJ software (n = 65);</p>3<p>Hydrodynamic size, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) immediately after dispersion of silver nanoparticles;</p>4<p>Pdi states for polydispersity index;</p>5<p>Test medium states for half-strength NaCl-free LB;</p>6<p>Analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy from supernatants of ultracentrifuged (390 000 g×60 min) 10 mg/l AgNPs' suspensions after 4-h incubation at 30°C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Gram negative", "Gram positive", "Microbial control", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Material by attribute", "Nanomaterials", "Materials characterization", "nanotechnology", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "nanoparticles"], "article_id"=>709098, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Olesja Bondarenko", "Angela Ivask", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Imbi Kurvet", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_silver_nanoparticles_AgNPs_used_in_the_current_study_/709098", "title"=>"Characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) used in the current study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-30 02:31:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070774", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070775", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070776", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070777", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070778", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070779", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070780", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070781", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070782", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1070783"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>It is generally accepted that antibacterial properties of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) are dictated by their dissolved fraction. However, dissolution-based concept alone does not fully explain the toxic potency of nanoparticulate silver compared to silver ions.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>Herein, we demonstrated that the direct contact between bacterial cell and AgNPs' surface enhanced the toxicity of nanosilver. More specifically, cell-NP contact increased the cellular uptake of particle-associated Ag ions – the single and ultimate cause of toxicity. To prove that, we evaluated the toxicity of three different AgNPs (uncoated, PVP-coated and protein-coated) to six bacterial strains: Gram-negative <i>Escherichia coli</i>, <i>Pseudomonas fluorescens</i>, <i>P. putida</i> and <i>P. aeruginosa</i> and Gram-positive <i>Bacillus subtilis</i> and <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. While the toxicity of AgNO<sub>3</sub> to these bacteria varied only slightly (the 4-h EC<sub>50</sub> ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 mg Ag/l), the 4-h EC<sub>50</sub> values of protein-coated AgNPs for various bacterial strains differed remarkably, from 0.35 to 46 mg Ag/l. By systematically comparing the intracellular and extracellular free Ag<sup>+</sup> liberated from AgNPs, we demonstrated that not only extracellular dissolution in the bacterial test environment but also additional dissolution taking place at the particle-cell interface played an essential role in antibacterial action of AgNPs. The role of the NP-cell contact in dictating the antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs was additionally proven by the following observations: (i) separation of bacterial cells from AgNPs by particle-impermeable membrane (cut-off 20 kDa, ∼4 nm) significantly reduced the toxicity of AgNPs and (ii) <i>P. aeruginosa</i> cells which tended to attach onto AgNPs, exhibited the highest sensitivity to all forms of nanoparticulate Ag.</p><p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>Our findings provide new insights into the mode of antibacterial action of nanosilver and explain some discrepancies in this field, showing that “Ag-ion” and “particle-specific” mechanisms are not controversial but, rather, are two faces of the same coin.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Gram negative", "Gram positive", "Microbial control", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "Material by attribute", "Nanomaterials", "Materials characterization", "nanotechnology", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "antibacterial"], "article_id"=>709099, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Olesja Bondarenko", "Angela Ivask", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Imbi Kurvet", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064060.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>50, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Particle_Cell_Contact_Enhances_Antibacterial_Activity_of_Silver_Nanoparticles_/709099", "title"=>"Particle-Cell Contact Enhances Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-05-30 02:31:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"34", "supp-data"=>"76", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"20", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"87", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"69", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"32", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[254, 440, 558, 675, 785, 883, 972, 1061, 1154, 1248, 1336, 1414, 1489]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Industrial engineering", "average_usage"=>[244, 415, 530, 647, 750, 829, 915, 999, 1097, 1201, 1293, 1361, 1439]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Membrane technology", "average_usage"=>[247, 423, 532, 631, 744, 843, 936, 1021, 1119, 1218, 1316, 1385, 1440, 1495]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Nanotechnology", "average_usage"=>[256, 458, 617, 731, 846, 969, 1069, 1179, 1305, 1408, 1500, 1582, 1676, 1749]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[265, 471, 604, 723, 827, 926, 1022, 1113, 1210, 1290, 1377, 1454, 1532]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts