Foraging Ecology Predicts Learning Performance in Insectivorous Bats
Publication Date
June 05, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Theresa M. A. Clarin, Ireneusz Ruczyński, Rachel A. Page & Björn M. Siemers
Volume
8
Issue
6
Pages
e64823
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064823
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0064823
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23755146
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3673959
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23755146
Web of Science
000320579400026
Scopus
84878747475
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/foraging-ecology-predicts-learning-performance-insectivorous-bats
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Foraging Ecology Predicts Learning Performance in Insectivorous Bats", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Theresa M.A.", "last_name"=>"Clarin", "scopus_author_id"=>"56003043600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ireneusz", "last_name"=>"Ruczyński", "scopus_author_id"=>"23009716300"}, {"first_name"=>"Rachel A.", "last_name"=>"Page", "scopus_author_id"=>"15081481100"}, {"first_name"=>"Björn M.", "last_name"=>"Siemers", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603393792"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84878747475", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0064823", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369075536", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23755146", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878747475"}, "id"=>"2f1242ca-5fc7-3cf7-9e87-e10c22a1e925", "abstract"=>"Bats are unusual among mammals in showing great ecological diversity even among closely related species and are thus well suited for studies of adaptation to the ecological background. Here we investigate whether behavioral flexibility and simple- and complex-rule learning performance can be predicted by foraging ecology. We predict faster learning and higher flexibility in animals hunting in more complex, variable environments than in animals hunting in more simple, stable environments. To test this hypothesis, we studied three closely related insectivorous European bat species of the genus Myotis that belong to three different functional groups based on foraging habitats: M. capaccinii, an open water forager, M. myotis, a passive listening gleaner, and M. emarginatus, a clutter specialist. We predicted that M. capaccinii would show the least flexibility and slowest learning reflecting its relatively unstructured foraging habitat and the stereotypy of its natural foraging behavior, while the other two species would show greater flexibility and more rapid learning reflecting the complexity of their natural foraging tasks. We used a purposefully unnatural and thus species-fair crawling maze to test simple- and complex-rule learning, flexibility and re-learning performance. We found that M. capaccinii learned a simple rule as fast as the other species, but was slower in complex rule learning and was less flexible in response to changes in reward location. We found no differences in re-learning ability among species. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that animals' cognitive skills reflect the demands of their ecological niche.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/foraging-ecology-predicts-learning-performance-insectivorous-bats", "reader_count"=>96, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>71, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>71}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074791"], "description"=>"<p>a) Maze used in experiments 1 to 3; “Exploration”, “Simple Rule Learning”, “Flexibility and Re-learning” b) Extended Maze used in experiment 4; “Complex Rule Learning”.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Species diversity", "Behavioral ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Animal management"], "article_id"=>711973, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Theresa M. A. Clarin", "Ireneusz Ruczyński", "Rachel A. Page", "Björn M. Siemers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064823.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mazes_used_in_experiments_/711973", "title"=>"Mazes used in experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:32:53"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074794"], "description"=>"<p>Number of days to reach criterion: There was no difference in learning performance among the three species (p = 0.34). Most animals reached the criterion on the first day after pre-training.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Species diversity", "Behavioral ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Animal management"], "article_id"=>711976, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Theresa M. A. Clarin", "Ireneusz Ruczyński", "Rachel A. Page", "Björn M. Siemers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064823.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_2_8220_Simple_Rule_Learning_8221_/711976", "title"=>"Experiment 2 (“Simple Rule Learning”).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:32:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074798"], "description"=>"<p>Number of trials until the animals visited a formerly unrewarded arm for the first time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Species diversity", "Behavioral ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Animal management"], "article_id"=>711980, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Theresa M. A. Clarin", "Ireneusz Ruczyński", "Rachel A. Page", "Björn M. Siemers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064823.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_3_8220_Flexibility_8221_/711980", "title"=>"Experiment 3 (“Flexibility”).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:33:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074800"], "description"=>"<p>Number of days from visiting the newly rewarded box for the first time to reaching criterion (turning 8 out of 10 times in the opposite direction than before): There was no difference in learning performance among the species (p = 0.13).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Species diversity", "Behavioral ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Animal management"], "article_id"=>711982, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Theresa M. A. Clarin", "Ireneusz Ruczyński", "Rachel A. Page", "Björn M. Siemers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064823.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_3_8220_Re_learning_8221_/711982", "title"=>"Experiment 3 (“Re-learning”).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:33:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074801"], "description"=>"<p>Number of days from visiting the newly rewarded box for the first time to reaching learning criterion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Species diversity", "Behavioral ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Animal management"], "article_id"=>711983, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Theresa M. A. Clarin", "Ireneusz Ruczyński", "Rachel A. Page", "Björn M. Siemers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064823.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_4_8220_Complex_Rule_Learning_8221_/711983", "title"=>"Experiment 4 (“Complex Rule Learning”).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074803"], "description"=>"<div><p>Bats are unusual among mammals in showing great ecological diversity even among closely related species and are thus well suited for studies of adaptation to the ecological background. Here we investigate whether behavioral flexibility and simple- and complex-rule learning performance can be predicted by foraging ecology. We predict faster learning and higher flexibility in animals hunting in more complex, variable environments than in animals hunting in more simple, stable environments. To test this hypothesis, we studied three closely related insectivorous European bat species of the genus <i>Myotis</i> that belong to three different functional groups based on foraging habitats: <i>M. capaccinii</i>, an open water forager, <i>M. myotis</i>, a passive listening gleaner, and <i>M. emarginatus</i>, a clutter specialist. We predicted that <i>M. capaccinii</i> would show the least flexibility and slowest learning reflecting its relatively unstructured foraging habitat and the stereotypy of its natural foraging behavior, while the other two species would show greater flexibility and more rapid learning reflecting the complexity of their natural foraging tasks. We used a purposefully unnatural and thus species-fair crawling maze to test simple- and complex-rule learning, flexibility and re-learning performance. We found that <i>M. capaccinii</i> learned a simple rule as fast as the other species, but was slower in complex rule learning and was less flexible in response to changes in reward location. We found no differences in re-learning ability among species. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that animals’ cognitive skills reflect the demands of their ecological niche.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Species diversity", "Behavioral ecology", "biodiversity", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Animal management", "insectivorous"], "article_id"=>711984, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Theresa M. A. Clarin", "Ireneusz Ruczyński", "Rachel A. Page", "Björn M. Siemers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064823", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Foraging_Ecology_Predicts_Learning_Performance_in_Insectivorous_Bats_/711984", "title"=>"Foraging Ecology Predicts Learning Performance in Insectivorous Bats", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:33:04"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[284, 458, 579, 688, 782, 879, 957, 1048, 1126, 1204, 1280, 1357, 1415]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecological niches", "average_usage"=>[351, 427]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Habitats", "average_usage"=>[297, 459, 571, 677, 787, 867, 962, 1045, 1121, 1208, 1289, 1372, 1442]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}]}
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