Punish and Voice: Punishment Enhances Cooperation when Combined with Norm-Signalling
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Punish and Voice: Punishment Enhances Cooperation when Combined with Norm-Signalling", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Giulia", "last_name"=>"Andrighetto", "scopus_author_id"=>"24823875200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jordi", "last_name"=>"Brandts", "scopus_author_id"=>"11639549000"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosaria", "last_name"=>"Conte", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102743589"}, {"first_name"=>"Jordi", "last_name"=>"Sabater-Mir", "scopus_author_id"=>"22981493100"}, {"first_name"=>"Hector", "last_name"=>"Solaz", "scopus_author_id"=>"36160480300"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Villatoro", "scopus_author_id"=>"26647156300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878948491", "pui"=>"369102533", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0064941", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84878948491", "pmid"=>"23776441"}, "id"=>"43cc2a6d-02d4-32d0-bfe1-006408fb463c", "abstract"=>"Material punishment has been suggested to play a key role in sustaining human cooperation. Experimental findings, however, show that inflicting mere material costs does not always increase cooperation and may even have detrimental effects. Indeed, ethnographic evidence suggests that the most typical punishing strategies in human ecologies (e.g., gossip, derision, blame and criticism) naturally combine normative information with material punishment. Using laboratory experiments with humans, we show that the interaction of norm communication and material punishment leads to higher and more stable cooperation at a lower cost for the group than when used separately. In this work, we argue and provide experimental evidence that successful human cooperation is the outcome of the interaction between instrumental decision-making and the norm psychology humans are provided with. Norm psychology is a cognitive machinery to detect and reason upon norms that is characterized by a salience mechanism devoted to track how much a norm is prominent within a group. We test our hypothesis both in the laboratory and with an agent-based model. The agent-based model incorporates fundamental aspects of norm psychology absent from previous work. The combination of these methods allows us to provide an explanation for the proximate mechanisms behind the observed cooperative behaviour. The consistency between the two sources of data supports our hypothesis that cooperation is a product of norm psychology solicited by norm-signalling and coercive devices.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/punish-voice-punishment-enhances-cooperation-combined-normsignalling", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>11, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>4, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>11}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>15}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84878948491"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84878948491?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84878948491&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84878948491&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84878948491", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84878948491", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84878948491", "dc:title"=>"Punish and Voice: Punishment Enhances Cooperation when Combined with Norm-Signalling", "dc:creator"=>"Andrighetto G.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"6", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-06-12", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"12 June 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0064941", "citedby-count"=>"37", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"European University Institute, San Domenico di Fiesole", "affiliation-city"=>"San Domenico di Fiesole", "affiliation-country"=>"Italy"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Istituto Di Scienze E Tecnologie Della Cognizione, Rome", "affiliation-city"=>"Rome", "affiliation-country"=>"Italy"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23776441", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e64941", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0064941", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"382"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"129"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084151"], "description"=>"<p>Panel A depicts the contribution levels obtained in the human experiments. Panel B depicts the punishment intensity observed in the human experiments. Mean punishment intensity is defined as the average number of punishment units sent, whenever punishment is used, i.e. all instances of zero punishment are excluded. Panel C depicts the punishment frequency observed in the human experiments. Punishment frequency measures the average number of times punishment is used, regardless of the number of punishment units sent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Computerized simulations", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "behavior", "habits", "learning", "motivation", "Sociology", "Computational sociology", "experiments"], "article_id"=>717739, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Giulia Andrighetto", "Jordi Brandts", "Rosaria Conte", "Jordi Sabater-Mir", "Hector Solaz", "Daniel Villatoro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_8211_C_Results_of_the_Experiments_with_Human_Subjects_/717739", "title"=>"(A–C) Results of the Experiments with Human Subjects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:08:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084152"], "description"=>"<p>Panel A depicts the cooperation levels observed in the simulation experiments. Agents are initialized with Individual Weight = 0.5; Normative Weight = 0.5; Initial Punishment Probability = 0.5; Forgetting Probability = 0.3 (for a parameter space exploration, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941#pone.0064941.s015\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>). The simulation experiment generates trends similar to the ones obtained with human subjects (compare <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941#pone-0064941-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1A</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941#pone-0064941-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2B</a>). After round 10, cooperation levels are higher in the sanction treatment than in the punishment treatment, because of the combined effect of the normative message and the monetary punishment. Panel B depicts the punishment frequency in the simulation experiments. Simulation results show that the frequency of punishment is significantly higher in the punishment treatment than in the sanction treatment, resulting in a less violent society even obtaining a higher cooperation rates as shown in the previous figure (compare <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941#pone-0064941-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1C</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941#pone-0064941-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2B</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Computerized simulations", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "behavior", "habits", "learning", "motivation", "Sociology", "Computational sociology", "simulation"], "article_id"=>717740, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Giulia Andrighetto", "Jordi Brandts", "Rosaria Conte", "Jordi Sabater-Mir", "Hector Solaz", "Daniel Villatoro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_8211_B_Results_of_the_simulation_experiments_/717740", "title"=>"(A–B) Results of the simulation experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:09:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084164", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084165", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084167", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084168", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084169", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084170", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084172", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084173", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084175", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084176", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084177", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084178", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084179", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084180", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084181"], "description"=>"<div><p>Material punishment has been suggested to play a key role in sustaining human cooperation. Experimental findings, however, show that inflicting mere material costs does not always increase cooperation and may even have detrimental effects. Indeed, ethnographic evidence suggests that the most typical punishing strategies in human ecologies (e.g., gossip, derision, blame and criticism) naturally combine normative information with material punishment. Using laboratory experiments with humans, we show that the interaction of norm communication and material punishment leads to higher and more stable cooperation at a lower cost for the group than when used separately. In this work, we argue and provide experimental evidence that successful human cooperation is the outcome of the interaction between instrumental decision-making and the norm psychology humans are provided with. Norm psychology is a cognitive machinery to detect and reason upon norms that is characterized by a salience mechanism devoted to track how much a norm is prominent within a group. We test our hypothesis both in the laboratory and with an agent-based model. The agent-based model incorporates fundamental aspects of norm psychology absent from previous work. The combination of these methods allows us to provide an explanation for the proximate mechanisms behind the observed cooperative behaviour. The consistency between the two sources of data supports our hypothesis that cooperation is a product of norm psychology solicited by norm-signalling and coercive devices.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Computerized simulations", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "behavior", "habits", "learning", "motivation", "Sociology", "Computational sociology"], "article_id"=>717742, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Giulia Andrighetto", "Jordi Brandts", "Rosaria Conte", "Jordi Sabater-Mir", "Hector Solaz", "Daniel Villatoro"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064941.s015"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>42, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Punish_and_Voice_Punishment_Enhances_Cooperation_when_Combined_with_Norm_Signalling_/717742", "title"=>"Punish and Voice: Punishment Enhances Cooperation when Combined with Norm-Signalling", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:09:02"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"75", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"30", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"45", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[261, 444, 554, 655, 748, 834, 923, 1004, 1089, 1170, 1244, 1315, 1380]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[284, 458, 579, 688, 782, 879, 957, 1048, 1126, 1204, 1280, 1357, 1415]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Systems science", "average_usage"=>[271, 427, 520, 640, 714, 773, 841, 899, 961, 1057, 1131, 1229, 1280, 1364]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[294, 460, 580, 683, 777, 868, 957, 1044, 1124, 1202, 1276, 1356, 1422]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts