Sleep Promotes the Extraction of Grammatical Rules
Publication Date
June 05, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis, Vasiliki Folia, Christian Forkstam, Ole Jensen, et al
Volume
8
Issue
6
Pages
e65046
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0065046
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23755173
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3673983
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23755173
Web of Science
000320579400037
Scopus
84878748420
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/sleep-promotes-extraction-grammatical-rules
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074952"], "description"=>"<p>Mean endorsement rates per stimulus category, on main factor level, and d-prime. Endorsement is the proportion of sequences classified as Grammatical independent of the actual grammaticality status of items. D-prime was defined as the difference between the z-transformed endorsement rate of Grammatical items and the z-transformed endorsement rate of the Non-Grammatical items. G = Grammatical, NG = Non-Grammatical, H = High ACS, L = Low ACS. Values in parenthesis denote standard deviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language", "rates"], "article_id"=>712096, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Endorsement_rates_per_group_/712096", "title"=>"Endorsement rates per group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:34:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074950"], "description"=>"<p>A) In the wake group (pooled 15 min morning, 15 min evening, and 12 h wake groups) participants endorsed almost equal amounts of Grammatical (G) and Non-Grammatical (NG) test items. In the sleep group (pooled 12 h sleep and 24 h sleep groups), however, the difference in the endorsement between G and NG items was more than 0.17. Thus, sleep increased the effect of grammaticality on endorsement (significant interaction between brain state and grammaticality in contrast 1, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046#pone-0065046-t006\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 6</b></a>). Both in the wake and in the sleep group, participants endorsed more High than Low ACS items. However, sleep did not amplify that effect (no interaction between brain state and ACS in contrast 1, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046#pone-0065046-t006\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 6</b></a>). B) Sleep especially enhanced the effect the grammaticality status of Low ACS test items had on classification (post hoc T-test, P<0.001, Bonferroni corrected), but also in the High ACS items there is a trend that sleep increased the effect of grammaticality (post hoc T-test, P = 0.052 Bonferroni corrected). Sleep increased the effect of the grammaticality on endorsement more for Low than High ACS items (brain state<b>×</b>grammaticality<b>×</b>ACS 3-Way interaction, P = 0.047 in contrast 1, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046#pone-0065046-t006\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 6</b></a>). C) The endorsement of each of the four categories of sequences in the Classification Set (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046#pone-0065046-g001\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Fig. 1D</b></a>) for the wake and sleep groups. Endorsement is the proportion of sequences classified as Grammatical independent of the actual grammaticality status. Endorsement difference is the difference between those proportions for G and NG sequences, or High ACS and Low ACS sequences. Error bars denote standard errors of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language", "brain-state", "classification"], "article_id"=>712094, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_brain_state_wake_sleep_on_classification_performance_/712094", "title"=>"The effect of brain-state (wake, sleep) on classification performance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:34:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074947"], "description"=>"<p>A) The Reber grammar used. B) Total Pool: all 569 unique 5–12 letter sequences. C) Acquisition Set: 100 representative sequences, used in the short-term memory task. D) Classification Set: 120 sequences arranged in a 2×2 factorial design, with the factors grammaticality (Grammatical, Non-Grammatical), and associative chunk strength (High, Low), used in the classification task.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language", "grammar"], "article_id"=>712091, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Artificial_grammar_and_stimulus_material_/712091", "title"=>"Artificial grammar and stimulus material.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:34:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074955"], "description"=>"<p>Four orthogonal planned contrasts were tested to investigate the effects of brain state, length of delay and time of exposure and testing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language"], "article_id"=>712099, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Planned_comparisons_/712099", "title"=>"Planned comparisons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:34:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074954"], "description"=>"<p>Standard deviations in parenthesis and range in brackets. ACS = associative chunk strength, G = Grammatical, NG = Non-Grammatical, H = High ACS, L = Low ACS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language"], "article_id"=>712098, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stimulus_material_/712098", "title"=>"Stimulus material.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:34:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074949"], "description"=>"<p>A) In the three wake groups (left column), Grammatical (G) and Non-Grammatical (NG) items were endorsed with almost equal rates. In the sleep groups (right column), however, Grammatical test sequences were clearly endorsed more often than Non-Grammatical ones, both for items with High and Low ACS. B) In all groups, participants endorsed more sequences with a High than a Low ACS. Endorsement is the proportion of sequences classified as Grammatical independent of the actual grammaticality status of items. Error bars denote standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language", "categories", "items"], "article_id"=>712093, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Endorsement_for_the_four_categories_of_test_items_within_each_of_the_5_participant_groups_/712093", "title"=>"Endorsement for the four categories of test items within each of the 5 participant groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:34:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074948"], "description"=>"<p>Exposure to the grammar took place during a short-term memory task. Each sequence was centrally presented letter-by-letter on a computer screen (2.7–6.9 s corresponding to 5–12 letters; 300 ms letter presentation, * = 300 ms inter-letter interval). Participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups with offline delays of varying length (15 min, 12 h, and 24 h). The delay of two groups contained nocturnal sleep (black lines, 12 h e-m and 24 h e-e). During the test phase, participants judged if novel sequences were Grammatical (G), or Non-Grammatical (NG). The letters were presented one by one, similarly to the short-term memory cover task. m = morning, e = evening.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language"], "article_id"=>712092, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Procedure_/712092", "title"=>"Procedure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:34:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074957", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074958"], "description"=>"<div><p>Grammar acquisition is a high level cognitive function that requires the extraction of complex rules. While it has been proposed that offline time might benefit this type of rule extraction, this remains to be tested. Here, we addressed this question using an artificial grammar learning paradigm. During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep) or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1) the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2) the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep. These findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in extracting complex structure from separate but related items during integrative memory processing. Our findings stress the importance of alternating periods of learning with sleep in settings in which complex information must be acquired.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language", "extraction", "grammatical"], "article_id"=>712101, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sleep_Promotes_the_Extraction_of_Grammatical_Rules_/712101", "title"=>"Sleep Promotes the Extraction of Grammatical Rules", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:35:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074956"], "description"=>"<p>Experimental groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language"], "article_id"=>712100, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_groups_/712100", "title"=>"Experimental groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:35:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074953"], "description"=>"<p>Results at main level reflect testing the null hypothesis of equal means between all 5 groups. Contrast 1 tested effect of brain state (wake, sleep), contrast 2 tested effect of length of delay within wake groups (12 h, 15 min), contrast 3 tested effect of length of delay within sleep groups (24 h, 12 h), and contrast 4 tested effect of time of day within the 15 min wake groups (morning, evening). See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046#pone-0065046-t003\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 3</b></a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> for more details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language", "3-way", "anova", "planned"], "article_id"=>712097, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_3_way_mixed_ANOVA_with_planned_comparisons_/712097", "title"=>"Results of 3-way mixed ANOVA with planned comparisons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:34:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1074951"], "description"=>"<p>Left: results of 2-way factorial (grammaticality and ACS) repeated measures ANOVA. Right: results of one sample t-test on d-prime values. Note: only the sleep groups showed a significant main effect of grammaticality and a d-prime value that was significantly higher than zero.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "memory", "recall", "behavior", "linguistics", "Natural language"], "article_id"=>712095, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis", "Vasiliki Folia", "Christian Forkstam", "Ole Jensen", "Karl Magnus Petersson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065046.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_statistical_tests_within_each_group_/712095", "title"=>"Results of statistical tests within each group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-05 00:34:55"}

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Relative Metric

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