Evidence for Direct Geographic Influences on Linguistic Sounds: The Case of Ejectives
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{"title"=>"Evidence for Direct Geographic Influences on Linguistic Sounds: The Case of Ejectives", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Caleb", "last_name"=>"Everett", "scopus_author_id"=>"26028576200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23776463", "sgr"=>"84878905452", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065275", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878905452", "pui"=>"369102524", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065275", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"34b583ad-308f-3aea-bf9e-d92fe6194425", "abstract"=>"We present evidence that the geographic context in which a language is spoken may directly impact its phonological form. We examined the geographic coordinates and elevations of 567 language locations represented in a worldwide phonetic database. Languages with phonemic ejective consonants were found to occur closer to inhabitable regions of high elevation, when contrasted to languages without this class of sounds. In addition, the mean and median elevations of the locations of languages with ejectives were found to be comparatively high. The patterns uncovered surface on all major world landmasses, and are not the result of the influence of particular language families. They reflect a significant and positive worldwide correlation between elevation and the likelihood that a language employs ejective phonemes. In addition to documenting this correlation in detail, we offer two plausible motivations for its existence. We suggest that ejective sounds might be facilitated at higher elevations due to the associated decrease in ambient air pressure, which reduces the physiological effort required for the compression of air in the pharyngeal cavity--a unique articulatory component of ejective sounds. In addition, we hypothesize that ejective sounds may help to mitigate rates of water vapor loss through exhaled air. These explications demonstrate how a reduction of ambient air density could promote the usage of ejective phonemes in a given language. Our results reveal the direct influence of a geographic factor on the basic sound inventories of human languages.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evidence-direct-geographic-influences-linguistic-sounds-case-ejectives", "reader_count"=>40, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>16}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Italy"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083907"], "description"=>"<p>Dark circles represent languages with ejectives, clear circles represent those without ejectives. Clusters of languages with ejectives are highlighted with white rectangles. For illustrative purposes only. Inset: Lat-long plot of polygons exceeding 1500 m in elevation. Adapted from Figure 4 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275#pone.0065275-Cohen1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>. The six major inhabitable areas of high elevation are highlighted via ellipses: (1) North American cordillera (2) Andes (3) Southern African plateau (4) East African rift (5) Caucasus and Javakheti plateau (6) Tibetan plateau and adjacent regions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "locations", "languages"], "article_id"=>717528, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_the_locations_of_the_languages_in_the_sample_/717528", "title"=>"Plot of the locations of the languages in the sample.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083909"], "description"=>"<p>Dark lines represent means for only those languages outside high elevation zones. Numbers at the bottom of each column represent total languages within high elevation zones, i.e. within 200 km of a region higher than 1500 m. Findings for individual languages are available from the author.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "locations", "regions"], "article_id"=>717530, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distances_in_km_of_language_locations_from_regions_of_high_elevation_/717530", "title"=>"Distances (in km) of language locations from regions of high elevation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083912"], "description"=>"<p>Means are highlighted with dark lines. Findings for individual languages are available from the author.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "elevations", "567", "languages"], "article_id"=>717533, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_the_elevations_of_language_locations_for_all_567_languages_in_the_sample_/717533", "title"=>"Plot of the elevations of language locations, for all 567 languages in the sample.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083913"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage of languages with ejectives, categorized according to the elevation at which the languages are spoken.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "languages", "categorized", "elevation"], "article_id"=>717534, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_languages_with_ejectives_categorized_according_to_the_elevation_at_which_the_languages_are_spoken_/717534", "title"=>"Percentage of languages with ejectives, categorized according to the elevation at which the languages are spoken.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083915"], "description"=>"<p>Note the relatively high first formant of the vowel following the velar ejective consonant in the first spectrogram.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics"], "article_id"=>717536, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectrograms_of_k_a_on_the_left_and_k_h_a_/717536", "title"=>"Spectrograms of [k’a] (on the left) and [k<sup>h</sup>a].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083917"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of languages with respect to regions of high elevation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "languages", "regions"], "article_id"=>717538, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_languages_with_respect_to_regions_of_high_elevation_/717538", "title"=>"Distribution of languages with respect to regions of high elevation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083918"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of language clusters with respect to regions of high elevation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "clusters", "regions"], "article_id"=>717539, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_language_clusters_with_respect_to_regions_of_high_elevation_/717539", "title"=>"Distribution of language clusters with respect to regions of high elevation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083919"], "description"=>"<p>Another breakdown of the distribution of languages with respect to regions of high elevation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "breakdown", "languages", "regions"], "article_id"=>717540, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Another_breakdown_of_the_distribution_of_languages_with_respect_to_regions_of_high_elevation_/717540", "title"=>"Another breakdown of the distribution of languages with respect to regions of high elevation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083920"], "description"=>"<p>Mean elevations of language locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "elevations"], "article_id"=>717541, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_elevations_of_language_locations_/717541", "title"=>"Mean elevations of language locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083921"], "description"=>"<p>Mean distances from major regions >1500 m in elevation, for languages outside high elevation zones (i.e. ≥201 km from regions at 1500+ m).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "distances", "regions", "languages", "elevation", "zones", "km"], "article_id"=>717542, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_distances_from_major_regions_gt_1500_m_in_elevation_for_languages_outside_high_elevation_zones_i_e_8805_201_km_from_regions_at_1500_m_/717542", "title"=>"Mean distances from major regions >1500 m in elevation, for languages outside high elevation zones (i.e. ≥201 km from regions at 1500+ m).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1083922"], "description"=>"<div><p>We present evidence that the geographic context in which a language is spoken may directly impact its phonological form. We examined the geographic coordinates and elevations of 567 language locations represented in a worldwide phonetic database. Languages with phonemic ejective consonants were found to occur closer to inhabitable regions of high elevation, when contrasted to languages without this class of sounds. In addition, the mean and median elevations of the locations of languages with ejectives were found to be comparatively high. The patterns uncovered surface on all major world landmasses, and are not the result of the influence of particular language families. They reflect a significant and positive worldwide correlation between elevation and the likelihood that a language employs ejective phonemes. In addition to documenting this correlation in detail, we offer two plausible motivations for its existence. We suggest that ejective sounds might be facilitated at higher elevations due to the associated decrease in ambient air pressure, which reduces the physiological effort required for the compression of air in the pharyngeal cavity–a unique articulatory component of ejective sounds. In addition, we hypothesize that ejective sounds may help to mitigate rates of water vapor loss through exhaled air. These explications demonstrate how a reduction of ambient air density could promote the usage of ejective phonemes in a given language. Our results reveal the direct influence of a geographic factor on the basic sound inventories of human languages.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Geographic and national differences", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "geography", "Human geography", "linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "phonology", "speech", "Structural linguistics", "geographic", "influences", "linguistic"], "article_id"=>717543, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Caleb Everett"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065275"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evidence_for_Direct_Geographic_Influences_on_Linguistic_Sounds_The_Case_of_Ejectives_/717543", "title"=>"Evidence for Direct Geographic Influences on Linguistic Sounds: The Case of Ejectives", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:05:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"80", "full-text"=>"111", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"71", "full-text"=>"94", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"16", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geography", "average_usage"=>[285, 472, 614, 714, 817, 928, 1028, 1122, 1225, 1327, 1410, 1482, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[254, 421, 527, 626, 720, 813, 900, 983, 1063, 1136, 1210, 1283, 1342]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Linguistics", "average_usage"=>[290, 461, 572, 671, 770, 847, 934, 1000, 1096, 1189, 1263, 1319, 1382]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[294, 460, 580, 683, 777, 868, 957, 1044, 1124, 1202, 1276, 1356, 1422]}]}
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