Feeding Mechanics in Spinosaurid Theropods and Extant Crocodilians
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{"title"=>"Feeding Mechanics in Spinosaurid Theropods and Extant Crocodilians", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrew R.", "last_name"=>"Cuff", "scopus_author_id"=>"55984879200"}, {"first_name"=>"Emily J.", "last_name"=>"Rayfield", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003569471"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84878422342", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065295", "pui"=>"369024889", "pmid"=>"23724135", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878422342", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"598eef67-ce86-3b0b-8858-a65853f743f8", "abstract"=>"A number of extant and extinct archosaurs evolved an elongate, narrow rostrum. This longirostrine condition has been associated with a diet comprising a higher proportion of fish and smaller prey items compared to taxa with broader, more robust snouts. The evolution of longirostrine morphology and a bulbous anterior rosette of premaxillary teeth also occurs in the spinosaurid theropod dinosaurs, leading to suggestions that at least some members of this clade also had a diet comprising a notable proportion of fish or other small vertebrates. Here we compare the rostral biomechanics of the spinosaurs Baryonyx walkeri and Spinosaurus c.f. S. aegyptiacus to three extant crocodilians: two longistrine taxa, the African slender-snouted crocodile Mecistops cataphractus and the Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus; and the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis. Using computed tomography (CT) data, the second moments of area and moments of inertia at successive transverse slices along the rostrum were calculated for each of the species. Size-independent results tested the biomechanical benefits of material distribution within the rostra. The two spinosaur rostra were both digitally reconstructed from CT data and compared against all three crocodilians. Results show that African slender-snouted crocodile skulls are more resistant to bending than an equivalent sized gharial. The alligator has the highest resistances to bending and torsion of the crocodiles for its size and greater than that of the spinosaurs. The spinosaur rostra possess similar resistance to bending and torsion despite their different morphologies. When size is accounted for, B. walkeri performs mechanically differently from the gharial, contradicting previous studies whereas Spinosaurus does not. Biomechanical data support known feeding ecology for both African slender-snouted crocodile and alligator, and suggest that the spinosaurs were not obligate piscivores with diet being determined by individual animal size.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/feeding-mechanics-spinosaurid-theropods-extant-crocodilians", "reader_count"=>83, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>30}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>30}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068488"], "description"=>"<p><b>(NHMUK 16665) in lateral and ventral views</b>. The original specimen – lateral view (A), and ventral view (B). The digitally prepared specimen with no matrix – lateral view (C), and ventral view (D). The rostral reconstruction is based on other specimens of <i>Spinosaurus</i> (e.g. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295#pone.0065295-DalSasso1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>) and the <i>B. walkeri</i> rostra - lateral view (E) and ventral view (F). <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295#pone.0065295.s007\" target=\"_blank\">Video S3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295#pone.0065295.s008\" target=\"_blank\">S4</a> for more detailed visualisations of preparation and reconstruction. Scale bar  = 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology"], "article_id"=>707469, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_digital_preparation_of_Spinosaurus_indet_/707469", "title"=>"The digital preparation of <i>Spinosaurus</i> indet.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068487"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The original specimen in left lateral view, (B) the original specimen in ventral view, (C) the digitally prepared original in left lateral view, (D) the digitally prepared original in ventral view, (E) final specimen with teeth removed and alveoli levelled, (F) final specimen with teeth removed and alveoli levelled showing cloned right maxilla. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295#pone.0065295.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Video S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295#pone.0065295.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a> for more detailed visualisations of the preparation and reconstruction. Scale bar  = 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "ventral", "views", "vp", "stages"], "article_id"=>707468, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lateral_and_ventral_views_of_Baryonyx_walkeri_NHMUK_VP_R9951_through_the_stages_of_digital_preparation_/707468", "title"=>"Lateral and ventral views of <i>Baryonyx walkeri</i> (NHMUK VP R9951) through the stages of digital preparation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068496", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068497", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068498", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068499", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068500", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068501", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068502", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068503"], "description"=>"<div><p>A number of extant and extinct archosaurs evolved an elongate, narrow rostrum. This longirostrine condition has been associated with a diet comprising a higher proportion of fish and smaller prey items compared to taxa with broader, more robust snouts. The evolution of longirostrine morphology and a bulbous anterior rosette of premaxillary teeth also occurs in the spinosaurid theropod dinosaurs, leading to suggestions that at least some members of this clade also had a diet comprising a notable proportion of fish or other small vertebrates. Here we compare the rostral biomechanics of the spinosaurs <i>Baryonyx walkeri</i> and <i>Spinosaurus</i> c.f. <i>S</i>. <i>aegyptiacus</i> to three extant crocodilians: two longistrine taxa, the African slender-snouted crocodile <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i> and the Indian gharial <i>Gavialis gangeticus</i>; and the American alligator <i>Alligator mississippiensis</i>.</p><p>Using computed tomography (CT) data, the second moments of area and moments of inertia at successive transverse slices along the rostrum were calculated for each of the species. Size-independent results tested the biomechanical benefits of material distribution within the rostra. The two spinosaur rostra were both digitally reconstructed from CT data and compared against all three crocodilians. Results show that African slender-snouted crocodile skulls are more resistant to bending than an equivalent sized gharial. The alligator has the highest resistances to bending and torsion of the crocodiles for its size and greater than that of the spinosaurs. The spinosaur rostra possess similar resistance to bending and torsion despite their different morphologies. When size is accounted for, <i>B. walkeri</i> performs mechanically differently from the gharial, contradicting previous studies whereas <i>Spinosaurus</i> does not. Biomechanical data support known feeding ecology for both African slender-snouted crocodile and alligator, and suggest that the spinosaurs were not obligate piscivores with diet being determined by individual animal size.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "mechanics", "spinosaurid", "theropods", "extant"], "article_id"=>707477, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Feeding_Mechanics_in_Spinosaurid_Theropods_and_Extant_Crocodilians_/707477", "title"=>"Feeding Mechanics in Spinosaurid Theropods and Extant Crocodilians", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068492"], "description"=>"<p>(A) log absolute Ix , (B) log size-corrected Ix (C) log absolute Iy , (D) log size-corrected Iy, (E) log absolute J , (F) log size-corrected J. Blue  =  alligator, red  =  gharial, black  =  <i>M. cataphractus</i>, green  =  <i>Spinosaurus</i>, orange  =  <i>B. walkeri</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "size-corrected", "moments", "inertia", "crocodilians", "spinosaurid"], "article_id"=>707473, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Log_of_absolute_and_log_of_size_corrected_second_moments_of_area_and_moments_of_inertia_for_crocodilians_and_spinosaurid_rostra_/707473", "title"=>"Log of absolute and log of size-corrected second moments of area and moments of inertia for crocodilians and spinosaurid rostra.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068490"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>A. mississippiensis</i>, (B) <i>G. gangeticus</i>, (C) <i>M. cataphractus</i>, (D) <i>Spinosaurus</i> indet. and (E) <i>B. walkeri.</i> All skulls have had their teeth removed and alveoli leveled. Blue lines indicate first (1) and last (25) slices of the crocodilian study, red lines mark on the spinosaurs (or equivalent for the crocodilians): 1<sup>st</sup> slice located at the rostral tip; 8th slice located at 18.5% of total rostral length.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "lateral", "views", "rostra", "tested"], "article_id"=>707471, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>70, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dorsal_and_lateral_views_of_skulls_reconstructed_rostra_of_the_species_tested_showing_slice_locations_/707471", "title"=>"Dorsal and lateral views of skulls/reconstructed rostra of the species tested showing slice locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068491"], "description"=>"<p>(A) log absolute Ix , (B) log size-corrected Ix (C) log absolute Iy , (D) log size-corrected Iy, (E) log absolute J , (F) log size-corrected J. Blue  =  alligator, red  =  gharial, black  =  <i>M. cataphractus</i>. Squares  =  upper jaw.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "size-corrected", "moments", "inertia"], "article_id"=>707472, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Log_of_absolute_and_size_corrected_second_moments_of_area_and_moments_of_inertia_for_crocodilians_/707472", "title"=>"Log of absolute and size-corrected second moments of area and moments of inertia for crocodilians.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068489"], "description"=>"<p>. (A) When a load is applied to a beam with one fixed end (a cantilever beam), the effect of the beam is a deflection in the direction of the force. This results in the most extreme tension on one side of the beam, and the most extreme tension on the opposite side. In the middle, there is a point where there is no tension or compression, called the neutral axis. B) Two circular cross sections of equal cortical area (black). Beam theory states the solid tube (hollow circle) will have higher resistance to bending and torsion than the solid circle due to the material being distributed further from any neutral axis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "illustrations"], "article_id"=>707470, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simple_illustrations_of_beam_theory_/707470", "title"=>"Simple illustrations of beam theory", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068486"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>G. gangeticus</i> (gharial) – NHMUK 2005.1605 (specimen used here), (B) <i>M. cataphractus</i> – NHMUK 1924.5.10.1 (specimen used here), (C) <i>A. mississippiensis</i> (American alligator) for reference – Chicago Zoological Society 31321. Scale bars  =  5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "tested", "moments"], "article_id"=>707467, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_tested_for_second_moments_of_area_and_moments_of_inertia_/707467", "title"=>"Species tested for second moments of area and moments of inertia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068494"], "description"=>"<p>Results that shift from significant to non significant after Šidàk test are marked with an asterisk (*).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "pairings", "crocodilian", "size-corrected"], "article_id"=>707475, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wilcoxon_tests_for_the_upper_jaw_pairings_of_the_crocodilian_species_for_both_size_corrected_data_and_residuals_/707475", "title"=>"Wilcoxon tests for the upper jaw pairings of the crocodilian species for both size-corrected data and residuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1068493"], "description"=>"<p>Results that shift from significant to non significant after Šidàk test are marked with an asterisk (*).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Herpetology", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "tailed", "t-tests", "mann", "whitney", "spinosaurids", "crocodilian", "size-corrected"], "article_id"=>707474, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Cuff", "Emily J. Rayfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065295.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_tailed_t_tests_and_Mann_Whitney_tests_between_the_spinosaurids_and_the_crocodilian_species_for_both_size_corrected_data_and_residuals_/707474", "title"=>"Two tailed t-tests and Mann Whitney tests between the spinosaurids and the crocodilian species for both size-corrected data and residuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-28 02:04:34"}

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Relative Metric

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