Testing Adaptive Hypotheses of Convergence with Functional Landscapes: A Case Study of Bone-Cracking Hypercarnivores
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{"title"=>"Testing Adaptive Hypotheses of Convergence with Functional Landscapes: A Case Study of Bone-Cracking Hypercarnivores", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zhijie Jack", "last_name"=>"Tseng", "scopus_author_id"=>"21834703800"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23734244", "sgr"=>"84878426360", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065305", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878426360", "pui"=>"369030937", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"a25397a9-0804-31fc-a871-4aca906904a1", "abstract"=>"Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design space, with skull width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios as variables, was used to examine optimized shapes for two functional properties: mechanical advantage (MA) and strain energy (SE). Functionality of theoretical skull shapes was studied using finite element analysis (FEA) and visualized as functional landscapes. The distribution of actual skull shapes in the landscape showed a convergent trend of plesiomorphically low-MA and moderate-SE skulls evolving towards higher-MA and moderate-SE skulls; this is corroborated by FEA of 13 actual specimens. Nevertheless, regions exist in the landscape where high-MA and lower-SE shapes are not represented by existing species; their vacancy is observed even at higher taxonomic levels. Results highlight the interaction of biomechanical and non-biomechanical factors in constraining general skull dimensions to localized functional optima through evolution.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/testing-adaptive-hypotheses-convergence-functional-landscapes-case-study-bonecracking-hypercarnivore", "reader_count"=>62, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>3, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>38, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>38}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069853"], "description"=>"<p>Data for borophagine canids (A–B) and hyaenids (C–D) from two-dimensional geometric morphometric analyses in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305#pone.0065305-Tseng1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>. A, C, dorsal views; B, D, lateral views. Illustrations of skull show the measurements of width to length (W∶L) and depth to length (D∶L) taken from theoretical and actual skull shapes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "shapes", "dogs"], "article_id"=>708526, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Convergent_evolution_of_skull_shapes_in_dogs_and_hyenas_/708526", "title"=>"Convergent evolution of skull shapes in dogs and hyenas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069854"], "description"=>"<p>The hybrid morphospace occupied by the 36 models spanned D∶L ratios from 0.33 to 0.73 and W∶L ratios from 0.42 to 1.11. Theoretical skull shapes are shown in rostral-lateral view.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "generated", "geometric", "modification"], "article_id"=>708527, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Theoretical_models_generated_by_geometric_modification_of_an_Ictitherium_skull_/708527", "title"=>"Theoretical models generated by geometric modification of an <i>Ictitherium</i> skull.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069855"], "description"=>"<p>W∶L and D∶L are plotted on the x- and y-axes, respectively. The functional properties mechanical advantage (MA) and skull strain energy (SE, in joules) are plotted on the z-axis. A, D, three-dimensional plots of the data points from analysis of theoretical models; B, E, the wire frame mesh overlaid and interpolated using the theoretical models; C, F, the theoretical models removed, leaving the mesh representing the functional landscapes for MA and SE, respectively. For data values see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305#pone.0065305.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology"], "article_id"=>708528, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Construction_of_the_functional_landscape_from_theoretical_morphologies_/708528", "title"=>"Construction of the functional landscape from theoretical morphologies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069856"], "description"=>"<p>A, D, distribution of hyaenids (dark circles) and fossil canids (light circles) on two-dimensional contour plots of MA and SE, respectively. Lines are isoclines. B, E, distribution of hyaenid and canid species on the three-dimensional functional landscapes for MA and SE, respectively. C, F, the pathways occupied by the hyaenid (shaded) and canid (outlined) lineages on the MA and SE landscapes, respectively. Sequential arrows indicate directions of change from less derived, earlier species to more derived, younger species. Note continuous climb on the MA landscape and shifting towards shallower slopes on the SE landscape. For data values of species models see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305#pone.0065305.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Table S6</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology"], "article_id"=>708529, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_actual_species_on_the_functional_landscapes_/708529", "title"=>"Distribution of actual species on the functional landscapes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069857"], "description"=>"<p>Small shaded squares represent theoretical models matched by existing hyaenid and canid species (small unshaded square shows position of insectivorous <i>Proteles cristata</i>). Suboptimal regions are shown in larger squares. Regions marked by parenthesized labels represent optimal areas not occupied by actual species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "optimal", "hybrid"], "article_id"=>708530, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Locations_of_optimal_functional_capability_in_the_hybrid_morphospace_/708530", "title"=>"Locations of optimal functional capability in the hybrid morphospace.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069858"], "description"=>"<p>A. distribution of theoretical models overlaid with values from FE models of actual species, all scaled by total surface area. B, distribution of theoretical and actual models, the latter scaled by condylobasal length of the skull. Red triangles indicate the theoretical pathway traveled by actual species on the functional landscape. The positions of hyaenid (darker shade) and canid (lighter shade) groupings are shown as ovals in (B). Species abbreviations (hyaenids): Ccr, <i>Crocuta crocuta</i>; Hlu, <i>Chasmaporthetes lunensis</i>; Iab, <i>Ikelohyaena abronia</i>; Ict, <i>Ictitherium sp.</i>; Pbr, <i>Parahyaena brunnea</i>; Pcr, <i>Proteles cristata</i>. Canids: Bor, <i>Borophagus secundus</i>; Can, <i>Canis lupus</i>; Epi, <i>Epicyon haydeni</i>; Lpi, <i>Lycaon pictus</i>; Mes, <i>Mesocyon coryphaeus</i>; Mic, <i>Microtomarctus conferta</i>. Percrocutid: Dgi, <i>Dinocrocuta gigantea</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "ma", "se"], "article_id"=>708531, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Theoretical_and_actual_MA_and_SE_values_/708531", "title"=>"Theoretical and actual MA and SE values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069859"], "description"=>"<p>A, <i>Dinocrocuta gigantea</i>; B, <i>Crocuta crocuta</i>; C, <i>Parahyaena brunnea</i>; D, <i>Ikelohyaena abronia</i>; E, <i>Chasmaporthetes lunensis</i>; F, <i>Ictitherium sp.</i>; G, <i>Proteles cristata</i>; H, <i>Epicyon haydeni</i>; I, <i>Borophagus secundus</i>; J, <i>Microtomarctus conferta</i>; K, <i>Canis lupus</i>; L, <i>Lycaon pictus</i>; M, <i>Mesocyon coryphaeus</i>. Phylogenetic relationships for hyaenids (A–G) based on Werdelin and Solounias (1991), and for canids (H–M) based on Wang (1994), Wang et al. (1999), and Tedford et al. (2009).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "distributions", "fe", "fossil", "extant"], "article_id"=>708532, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stress_distributions_on_the_FE_skull_models_of_actual_fossil_and_extant_species_/708532", "title"=>"Stress distributions on the FE skull models of actual fossil and extant species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069861"], "description"=>"<p>Distributions are plotted on the MA (A), SE (B), and MA∶SE (C–D) landscapes. Arrows indicate pathways of evolution for hyaenids (light arrows) and borophagine canids (dark arrows). Species distributions of modern carnivoran species are plotted as solid contours. Peaks on the MA∶SE landscape (D) represent optimized theoretical skull shapes that are either realized (light shade) or unoccupied (dark shade, with question mark). (D) corresponds with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305#pone-0065305-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "american", "african", "carnivoran"], "article_id"=>708534, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distributions_of_modern_North_American_and_East_African_carnivoran_species_on_the_functional_landscapes_/708534", "title"=>"Distributions of modern North American and East African carnivoran species on the functional landscapes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069862"], "description"=>"<p>For list of specimen numbers see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305#pone.0065305.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Tables S1</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305#pone.0065305.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a>.</p>†<p>extinct taxon.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "hyaenids", "canids"], "article_id"=>708535, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_actual_models_and_species_measurements_of_hyaenids_and_canids_used_in_the_study_/708535", "title"=>"List of actual models and species measurements of hyaenids and canids used in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069863"], "description"=>"<p>For specimen numbers see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305#pone.0065305.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Tables S3</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305#pone.0065305.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4</a> and Tseng and Wang <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305#pone.0065305-Tseng1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "american", "africa", "carnivoran", "contour"], "article_id"=>708536, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_modern_North_American_and_East_Africa_carnivoran_species_used_to_construct_contour_of_carnivoran_distribution_/708536", "title"=>"List of modern North American and East Africa carnivoran species used to construct contour of carnivoran distribution.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069864", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069865", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069866", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069867", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069868", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1069869"], "description"=>"<div><p>Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design space, with skull width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios as variables, was used to examine optimized shapes for two functional properties: mechanical advantage (MA) and strain energy (SE). Functionality of theoretical skull shapes was studied using finite element analysis (FEA) and visualized as functional landscapes. The distribution of actual skull shapes in the landscape showed a convergent trend of plesiomorphically low-MA and moderate-SE skulls evolving towards higher-MA and moderate-SE skulls; this is corroborated by FEA of 13 actual specimens. Nevertheless, regions exist in the landscape where high-MA and lower-SE shapes are not represented by existing species; their vacancy is observed even at higher taxonomic levels. Results highlight the interaction of biomechanical and non-biomechanical factors in constraining general skull dimensions to localized functional optima through evolution.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Evolutionary biology", "Forms of evolution", "Convergent evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "adaptive", "hypotheses", "convergence", "bone-cracking"], "article_id"=>708537, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhijie Jack Tseng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065305.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Testing_Adaptive_Hypotheses_of_Convergence_with_Functional_Landscapes_A_Case_Study_of_Bone_Cracking_Hypercarnivores_/708537", "title"=>"Testing Adaptive Hypotheses of Convergence with Functional Landscapes: A Case Study of Bone-Cracking Hypercarnivores", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-05-29 02:22:17"}

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Relative Metric

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