Alterations of Neuromuscular Function after the World's Most Challenging Mountain Ultra-Marathon
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{"title"=>"Alterations of Neuromuscular Function after the World's Most Challenging Mountain Ultra-Marathon", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jonas", "last_name"=>"Saugy", "scopus_author_id"=>"55559767400"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Place", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603909803"}, {"first_name"=>"Guillaume Y.", "last_name"=>"Millet", "scopus_author_id"=>"56114934100"}, {"first_name"=>"Francis", "last_name"=>"Degache", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801412867"}, {"first_name"=>"Federico", "last_name"=>"Schena", "scopus_author_id"=>"16182326400"}, {"first_name"=>"Grégoire P.", "last_name"=>"Millet", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006255373"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065596", "sgr"=>"84879470316", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369200423", "isbn"=>"1932-6203; 1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23840345", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879470316"}, "id"=>"6e9b4bb3-4565-391a-8e45-108d9640c674", "abstract"=>"We investigated the physiological consequences of the most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) in the world: a 330-km trail run with 24000 m of positive and negative elevation change. Neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) was assessed before (Pre-), during (Mid-) and after (Post-) the MUM in experienced ultra-marathon runners (n = 15; finish time  = 122.43 hours ±17.21 hours) and in Pre- and Post- in a control group with a similar level of sleep deprivation (n = 8). Blood markers of muscle inflammation and damage were analyzed at Pre- and Post-. Mean ± SD maximal voluntary contraction force declined significantly at Mid- (-13±17% and -10±16%, P<0.05 for knee extensor, KE, and plantar flexor muscles, PF, respectively), and further decreased at Post- (-24±13% and -26±19%, P<0.01) with alteration of the central activation ratio (-24±24% and -28±34% between Pre- and Post-, P<0.05) in runners whereas these parameters did not change in the control group. Peripheral NMF markers such as 100 Hz doublet (KE: -18±18% and PF: -20±15%, P<0.01) and peak twitch (KE: -33±12%, P<0.001 and PF: -19±14%, P<0.01) were also altered in runners but not in controls. Post-MUM blood concentrations of creatine kinase (3719±3045 Ul·(1)), lactate dehydrogenase (1145±511 UI·L(-1)), C-Reactive Protein (13.1±7.5 mg·L(-1)) and myoglobin (449.3±338.2 µg·L(-1)) were higher (P<0.001) than at Pre- in runners but not in controls. Our findings revealed less neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage and inflammation than in shorter MUMs. In conclusion, paradoxically, such extreme exercise seems to induce a relative muscle preservation process due likely to a protective anticipatory pacing strategy during the first half of MUM and sleep deprivation in the second half.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/alterations-neuromuscular-function-after-worlds-most-challenging-mountain-ultramarathon", "reader_count"=>94, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>21, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>44, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>21}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>44}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Slovenia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>10}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102523"], "description"=>"<p>A two-way repeated measure ANOVA was used complemented by a Bonferroni post-hoc test. Values are mean ± SE.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Blood chemistry", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Muscle functions", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "Peripheral nervous system", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electromyography", "Sports and exercise medicine", "potentiated", "doublet", "extensors", "plantar", "flexors"], "article_id"=>732680, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas Saugy", "Nicolas Place", "Guillaume Y. Millet", "Francis Degache", "Federico Schena", "Grégoire P. Millet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065596.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amplitude_of_the_potentiated_doublet_PS100_prior_to_Pre_in_the_middle_of_Mid_and_after_Post_the_race_for_knee_extensors_KE_panel_A_and_plantar_flexors_PF_panel_B_/732680", "title"=>"Amplitude of the potentiated doublet (PS100) prior to (Pre-), in the middle of (Mid-) and after (Post-) the race for knee extensors (KE, panel A) and plantar flexors (PF, panel B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 10:13:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102521"], "description"=>"<p>Altitude profile of the entire run with the three session test locations and the distance scale in km.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Blood chemistry", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Muscle functions", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "Peripheral nervous system", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electromyography", "Sports and exercise medicine", "locations"], "article_id"=>732678, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas Saugy", "Nicolas Place", "Guillaume Y. Millet", "Francis Degache", "Federico Schena", "Grégoire P. Millet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065596.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Altitude_profile_of_the_entire_run_with_the_three_session_test_locations_and_the_distance_scale_in_km_/732678", "title"=>"Altitude profile of the entire run with the three session test locations and the distance scale in km.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 10:13:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102532"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean ± SD. Training volume was considered for the past trail running season. Mid-: during the run at Donnas, km 148.7. Post-: about 30 minutes after the race, at Courmayeur. Sleep represents the sleeping time accumulated at Mid- and Post-. #: P<0.001 for differences between control and other groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Blood chemistry", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Muscle functions", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "Peripheral nervous system", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electromyography", "Sports and exercise medicine"], "article_id"=>732689, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas Saugy", "Nicolas Place", "Guillaume Y. Millet", "Francis Degache", "Federico Schena", "Grégoire P. Millet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065596.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Main_characteristics_of_the_different_groups_/732689", "title"=>"Main characteristics of the different groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 10:13:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102530"], "description"=>"<p>Values are given as mean ±SD. N = 8 and n = 9 for CON and TOR respectively. *: P<0.05 for differences with Pre; #: P<0.05 for differences between TOR and CON.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Blood chemistry", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Muscle functions", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "Peripheral nervous system", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electromyography", "Sports and exercise medicine", "potentiated", "twitch", "extensors", "plantar", "m-wave", "peak-to-peak", "amplitude", "duration", "flexors", "runners"], "article_id"=>732687, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas Saugy", "Nicolas Place", "Guillaume Y. Millet", "Francis Degache", "Federico Schena", "Grégoire P. Millet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065596.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Values_of_potentiated_peak_twitch_N_for_knee_extensors_and_Newton_meter_N_183_m_for_plantar_flexors_and_M_wave_peak_to_peak_amplitude_millivolts_mV_and_peak_to_peak_duration_ms_for_the_knee_extensors_KE_and_the_plantar_flexors_PF_prior_to_Pre_in_the_midd/732687", "title"=>"Values of potentiated peak twitch (N for knee extensors and Newton.meter: N·m for plantar flexors) and M-wave peak-to-peak amplitude (millivolts: mV) and peak-to-peak duration (ms) for the knee extensors (KE) and the plantar flexors (PF) prior to (Pre-), in the middle of (Mid-) and after (Post-) the race in runners (TOR, n = 9) and control group (CON, n = 8).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 10:13:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102531"], "description"=>"<p>Values are given as mean ± SD. *: P<0.05 for differences in TOR between Pre- and Post-.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Blood chemistry", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Muscle functions", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "Peripheral nervous system", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electromyography", "Sports and exercise medicine", "activation", "extensors", "plantar", "flexors", "runners"], "article_id"=>732688, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas Saugy", "Nicolas Place", "Guillaume Y. Millet", "Francis Degache", "Federico Schena", "Grégoire P. Millet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065596.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Central_activation_ratio_CAR_for_the_knee_extensors_KE_and_the_plantar_flexors_PF_prior_to_Pre_in_the_middle_of_Mid_and_after_Post_the_race_in_runners_TOR_n_8202_8202_9_and_control_group_CON_n_8202_8202_8_/732688", "title"=>"Central activation ratio (CAR, %) for the knee extensors (KE) and the plantar flexors (PF) prior to (Pre-), in the middle of (Mid-) and after (Post-) the race in runners (TOR, n = 9) and control group (CON, n = 8).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 10:13:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102529"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean values ± SD. ***: P<0.001 for differences between Pre- and Post-. ##: P<0.01, ###: P<0.001 for differences between groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Blood chemistry", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Muscle functions", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "Peripheral nervous system", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electromyography", "Sports and exercise medicine", "markers", "runners"], "article_id"=>732686, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas Saugy", "Nicolas Place", "Guillaume Y. Millet", "Francis Degache", "Federico Schena", "Grégoire P. Millet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065596.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Main_blood_markers_of_muscle_damage_and_inflammation_prior_to_Pre_and_after_Post_the_race_in_runners_TOR_n_8202_8202_9_and_control_group_CON_n_8202_8202_6_/732686", "title"=>"Main blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation prior to (Pre-) and after (Post-) the race in runners (TOR, n = 9) and control group (CON, n = 6).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 10:13:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102526"], "description"=>"<p>A two-way repeated measure ANOVA was used complemented by a Bonferroni post-hoc test. Values are mean ± SE.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Blood chemistry", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Muscle functions", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "Peripheral nervous system", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electromyography", "Sports and exercise medicine", "analogue", "pain-foot-ankle", "knee-thigh-hip", "digestive", "runners"], "article_id"=>732683, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas Saugy", "Nicolas Place", "Guillaume Y. Millet", "Francis Degache", "Federico Schena", "Grégoire P. Millet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065596.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_analogue_scale_VAS_for_the_pain_foot_ankle_panel_A_the_knee_thigh_hip_panel_B_the_digestive_feeling_panel_C_and_the_general_fatigue_panel_D_for_runners_TOR_and_control_group_CON_prior_to_Pre_in_the_middle_of_Mid_and_after_Post_the_race_/732683", "title"=>"Visual analogue scale (VAS) for the pain-foot-ankle (panel A), the knee-thigh-hip (panel B), the digestive feeling (panel C) and the general fatigue (panel D) for runners (TOR) and control group (CON) prior to (Pre-), in the middle of (Mid-) and after (Post-) the race.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 10:13:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102525"], "description"=>"<p>Unpaired t-tests were used. Data are given in changes from Pre- values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Blood chemistry", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Muscle functions", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "Peripheral nervous system", "Physiological processes", "sleep", "Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electromyography", "Sports and exercise medicine", "mvc", "utmb", "du", "tdg", "des", "mid-race", "extensors", "plantar", "flexors", "twitch", "mid"], "article_id"=>732682, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jonas Saugy", "Nicolas Place", "Guillaume Y. Millet", "Francis Degache", "Federico Schena", "Grégoire P. Millet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065596.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decrease_in_MVC_force_for_UTMB_Ultra_Trail_du_Mont_Blanc_the_TdG_Tor_des_Geants_and_TdG_at_mid_race_Mid_for_the_knee_extensors_KE_panel_A_and_the_plantar_flexors_PF_panel_B_and_decrease_in_peak_twitch_for_the_UTMB_the_TdG_and_TdG_Mid_for_the_knee_extenso/732682", "title"=>"Decrease in MVC force for UTMB (Ultra-Trail du Mont-Blanc), the TdG (Tor des Geants) and TdG at mid-race (Mid) for the knee extensors (KE, panel A) and the plantar flexors (PF, panel B) and decrease in peak twitch for the UTMB, the TdG and TdG Mid for the knee extensors (panel C) and the plantar flexors (panel D).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 10:13:03"}

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Relative Metric

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