A Study on Factors Affecting the Degradation of Magnesium and a Magnesium-Yttrium Alloy for Biomedical Applications
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{"title"=>"A Study on Factors Affecting the Degradation of Magnesium and a Magnesium-Yttrium Alloy for Biomedical Applications", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ian", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"54796639500"}, {"first_name"=>"Huinan", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"8569854200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879059738", "sgr"=>"84879059738", "pui"=>"369122548", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23799028", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065603"}, "id"=>"94110034-f586-35cf-beba-a61379f69a7e", "abstract"=>"Controlling degradation of magnesium or its alloys in physiological saline solutions is essential for their potential applications in clinically viable implants. Rapid degradation of magnesium-based materials reduces the mechanical properties of implants prematurely and severely increases alkalinity of the local environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three interactive factors on magnesium degradation, specifically, the addition of yttrium to form a magnesium-yttrium alloy versus pure magnesium, the metallic versus oxide surfaces, and the presence versus absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution. In the immersion solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the slowest, followed by pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface degraded the fastest. However, in deionized (DI) water, the degradation rate showed a different trend. Specifically, pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces degraded the slowest, followed by the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the fastest. Interestingly, only magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded slower in PBS than in DI water, while all the other samples degraded faster in PBS than in DI water. Clearly, the results showed that the alloy composition, presence or absence of surface oxide layer, and presence or absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution all influenced the degradation rate and mode. Moreover, these three factors showed statistically significant interactions. This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors and their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the key factors to consider in order to satisfy the degradation requirements for next-generation biodegradable implants and devices.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/study-factors-affecting-degradation-magnesium-magnesiumyttrium-alloy-biomedical-applications", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>17, "Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>17}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>9}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088962"], "description"=>"<p>The surface elemental composition of the cpMg* and MgY* before and after 24 hours of degradation in DI water or PBS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "elemental", "24", "hours", "degradation", "di"], "article_id"=>721696, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_surface_elemental_composition_of_the_cpMg_and_MgY_before_and_after_24_hours_of_degradation_in_DI_water_or_PBS_/721696", "title"=>"The surface elemental composition of the cpMg* and MgY* before and after 24 hours of degradation in DI water or PBS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:28:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088960"], "description"=>"<p>Data were calculated based on sample mass change using <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603#pone.0065603.e003\" target=\"_blank\">Eq 1</a>. Values are average ± standard deviation; N = 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "degradation", "rates", "samples", "di"], "article_id"=>721694, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_maximum_degradation_rates_of_cpMg_and_MgY_samples_in_DI_water_and_in_PBS_/721694", "title"=>"The maximum degradation rates of cpMg* and MgY* samples in DI water and in PBS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:28:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088956"], "description"=>"<p>(A) PBS pH at all time points. (B) Zoom into PBS pH at the early time points for clear view. Values are average ± standard deviation; N = 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "ph", "pbs", "containing", "samples", "prescribed", "incubation"], "article_id"=>721691, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_pH_change_of_the_PBS_solution_containing_the_cpMg_and_MgY_samples_over_the_prescribed_incubation_time_/721691", "title"=>"The pH change of the PBS solution containing the cpMg* and MgY* samples over the prescribed incubation time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:28:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088955"], "description"=>"<p>M<sub>i</sub> was the mass after the prescribed incubation time (i) and M<sub>0</sub> was the initial mass. (A) Sample mass change at all time points. (B) Zoom into sample mass change at the early time points for clear view. The green star above the error bar of MgY mass change at 456 hr indicates that one of the triplicate samples completely degraded (i.e., reached 0 mass), causing a greater standard deviation. Values are average ± standard deviation; N = 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "samples", "degradation"], "article_id"=>721690, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_mass_change_of_the_cpMg_and_MgY_samples_during_degradation_in_PBS_/721690", "title"=>"The mass change of the cpMg* and MgY* samples during degradation in PBS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:28:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088937"], "description"=>"<p>The sample appearance changed with time, indicating different degradation rate and mode.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "samples", "incubation", "di", "prescribed"], "article_id"=>721672, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Photographs_of_the_cpMg_and_MgY_samples_after_incubation_in_DI_water_under_standard_cell_culture_conditions_for_the_prescribed_time_points_/721672", "title"=>"Photographs of the cpMg* and MgY* samples after incubation in DI water under standard cell culture conditions for the prescribed time points.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:27:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088932"], "description"=>"<p>MgY* refer to Mg-Y alloys with either metallic (MgY) or oxide (MgY_O) surfaces. cpMg* refers to commercially pure Mg with either metallic (cpMg) or oxide (cpMg_O) surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "interacting", "degradation"], "article_id"=>721667, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_key_interacting_factors_influence_degradation_rate_and_mode_of_magnesium_/721667", "title"=>"Three key interacting factors influence degradation rate and mode of magnesium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:27:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088945"], "description"=>"<p>(A) DI water pH at all time points. (B) Zoom into DI water pH at the early time points for clear view. Values are average ± standard deviation; N = 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "ph", "di", "containing", "samples", "prescribed", "incubation"], "article_id"=>721680, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_pH_change_of_the_DI_water_containing_the_cpMg_and_MgY_samples_over_the_prescribed_incubation_time_/721680", "title"=>"The pH change of the DI water containing the cpMg* and MgY* samples over the prescribed incubation time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:28:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088959"], "description"=>"<p>Scale bars: 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "microstructure", "samples", "24", "hours", "degradation", "di"], "article_id"=>721693, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Surface_microstructure_of_the_A_B_cpMg_and_C_D_MgY_samples_before_and_after_24_hours_of_degradation_in_either_DI_water_or_PBS_/721693", "title"=>"Surface microstructure of the (A, B) cpMg* and (C, D) MgY* samples before and after 24 hours of degradation in either DI water or PBS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:28:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088943"], "description"=>"<p>M<sub>i</sub> was the mass after the prescribed incubation time (i) and M<sub>0</sub> was the initial mass. (A) Sample mass change at all time points. (B) Zoom into sample mass change at the early time points for clear view. Values are average ± standard deviation; N = 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "samples", "degradation", "di"], "article_id"=>721678, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_mass_change_of_the_cpMg_and_MgY_samples_during_degradation_in_DI_water_/721678", "title"=>"The mass change of the cpMg* and MgY* samples during degradation in DI water.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:27:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088958"], "description"=>"<p>Interaction plots demonstrated the two-way interactions between factors. Two separate interaction plots with different values of the third factor were placed side by side for comparison. The values of the third factor were shown directly above each graph. (A) Alloy and surface type with media type as the third factor. (B) Alloy and media type with surface type as the third factor. (C) Media and surface type with alloy as the third factor.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices"], "article_id"=>721692, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interactions_between_three_key_factors_that_influence_sample_lifetime_/721692", "title"=>"Interactions between three key factors that influence sample lifetime.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:28:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088954"], "description"=>"<p>The sample appearance changed with time, indicating different degradation rate and mode.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "samples", "incubation", "pbs", "prescribed"], "article_id"=>721689, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Photographs_of_the_cpMg_and_MgY_samples_after_incubation_in_PBS_under_standard_cell_culture_conditions_for_the_prescribed_time_points_/721689", "title"=>"Photographs of the cpMg* and MgY* samples after incubation in PBS under standard cell culture conditions for the prescribed time points.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:28:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1088961"], "description"=>"<p>The <i>p</i> values were calculated using three-way factorial ANOVA. All <i>p</i> values were <0.05, indicating statistical significance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Medical devices", "biomaterials", "Metallurgy", "Metal alloys", "Magnesium alloys", "Materials characterization", "Drugs and devices", "immersion"], "article_id"=>721695, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Engineering", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ian Johnson", "Huinan Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065603.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_significance_of_the_three_factors_alloy_composition_sample_surface_type_immersion_media_on_sample_lifetime_and_their_interactions_/721695", "title"=>"Statistical significance of the three factors (alloy composition, sample surface type, immersion media) on sample lifetime and their interactions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-14 00:28:15"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[247, 429, 544, 647, 747, 842, 929, 1012, 1099, 1179, 1263, 1339, 1409]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[250, 417, 535, 649, 758, 857, 952, 1036, 1113, 1206, 1287, 1353, 1429]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[254, 421, 527, 626, 720, 813, 900, 983, 1063, 1136, 1210, 1283, 1342]}]}
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