Antimicrobial Activity and Probable Mechanisms of Action of Medicinal Plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus
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{"title"=>"Antimicrobial Activity and Probable Mechanisms of Action of Medicinal Plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Peter G.", "last_name"=>"Mwitari", "scopus_author_id"=>"16686879300"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter A.", "last_name"=>"Ayeka", "scopus_author_id"=>"55764217500"}, {"first_name"=>"Joyce", "last_name"=>"Ondicho", "scopus_author_id"=>"26022046900"}, {"first_name"=>"Esther N.", "last_name"=>"Matu", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504392756"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine C.", "last_name"=>"Bii", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801357295"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878971317", "sgr"=>"84878971317", "pui"=>"369111458", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23785437", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065619"}, "id"=>"7d4feed0-409e-3333-9e91-5c6a6ac26363", "abstract"=>"Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg) and fluconazole (25 µg) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78-100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50<50 µg/ml with MIC values of less than 0.78 mg/ml. Prunus africana shuts down expression of IL 7 mRNA at 50 µg/ml. W. somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 µg/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/antimicrobial-activity-probable-mechanisms-action-medicinal-plants-kenya-withania-somnifera-warbugia", "reader_count"=>83, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>16, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>16}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"South Africa"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1086481"], "description"=>"<p>They display zones of inhibition (mm) of 12, 9, 8, 6 & 14, 8, 8, 6 respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "genetics", "immunology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "fractions", "11", "17", "dichloromethane", "extract", "ugandensis", "neoformans", "albicans"], "article_id"=>719456, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter G. Mwitari", "Peter A. Ayeka", "Joyce Ondicho", "Esther N. Matu", "Christine C. Bii"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065619.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antifungal_activity_of_fractions_9_10_11_amp_17_from_dichloromethane_extract_of_W_ugandensis_against_C_neoformans_A_and_C_albicans_B_/719456", "title"=>"Antifungal activity of fractions 9, 10, 11 & 17 from dichloromethane extract of W. ugandensis against C. neoformans (A) and C. albicans (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-13 02:37:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1086482"], "description"=>"<p>W.ugandesis (Wu), P. africana (Pa) & P. barbatus (Pb) at concentrations ranging from 0.0005–5000 µg/ml and, W. somnifera (Ws) at concentrations ranging from 0.001–10,000 µg/ml. W. somnifera (Ws), P. africana (Pa) & P. barbatus (Pb) are relatively safe for use even in dose levels exceeding 200 µg/ml. W. ugandensis has a much lower safety level below 50 µg/ml.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "genetics", "immunology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "iec-6", "assay"], "article_id"=>719457, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter G. Mwitari", "Peter A. Ayeka", "Joyce Ondicho", "Esther N. Matu", "Christine C. Bii"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065619.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphical_representation_of_the_results_of_IEC_6_cell_proliferation_cytotoxicity_assay_of_4_plant_extracts_/719457", "title"=>"Graphical representation of the results of IEC-6 cell proliferation/cytotoxicity assay of 4 plant extracts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-13 02:37:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1086483"], "description"=>"<p>A&B represents GAPDH & IL 7 respectively at concentrations: WU 50 µg/ml, WS 100 µg/ml, PA 50 µg/ml, PB1 500 µg/ml & PB2 1000 µg/ml respectively. C&D represents GAPDH & IL 7 at concentrations: WU1 83.33 µg/ml, WU2 41.67 µg/ml, WU3 16.67 µg/ml, WS1 666.67 µg/ml & WS2 333.33 µg/ml respectively. IL 7 is not expressed in presence of P. africana. Doubling P. barbatus concentration does not affect expression in either direction. Abbreviations; M; marker, C; control, WU; Warbugia ugandensis, WS; Withania somnifera, PA; Prunus africana, PB; Plectrunthus barbatus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "genetics", "immunology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "hr", "gapdh", "il-7"], "article_id"=>719458, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter G. Mwitari", "Peter A. Ayeka", "Joyce Ondicho", "Esther N. Matu", "Christine C. Bii"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065619.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_72_hr_expression_of_GAPDH_and_IL_7_on_treatment_with_different_herbs_/719458", "title"=>"72 hr expression of GAPDH and IL-7 on treatment with different herbs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-13 02:37:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1086484"], "description"=>"<p>The assay was replicated 3 times. W. somnifera up-regulates IL-7 to approximately 2 times.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "genetics", "immunology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "depicting", "il", "mrna", "iec-6", "cells", "subjected", "medicinal"], "article_id"=>719459, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter G. Mwitari", "Peter A. Ayeka", "Joyce Ondicho", "Esther N. Matu", "Christine C. Bii"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065619.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bar_chart_depicting_the_relative_IL_7_mRNA_expression_in_IEC_6_cells_subjected_to_the_4_medicinal_plants_/719459", "title"=>"Bar chart depicting the relative IL 7 mRNA expression in IEC-6 cells subjected to the 4 medicinal plants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-13 02:37:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1086485"], "description"=>"<p>A & B represent GAPDH & IL 7 respectively. Combination ratios, WU/PA 1∶2, WU/PB 1∶4, WU/WS 1∶1, PA/PB 1∶2, PA/WS 2∶1, PB/WS 2∶1, PB/WS 4∶1, WU/WS/PB, 1∶1:4. P. africana was able to shut down the expression of IL 7 irrespective of the combination used.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "genetics", "immunology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "hr", "gapdh", "il", "combinations"], "article_id"=>719460, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter G. Mwitari", "Peter A. Ayeka", "Joyce Ondicho", "Esther N. Matu", "Christine C. Bii"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065619.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_72_hr_expression_of_GAPDH_and_IL_7_on_treatment_with_different_combinations_of_the_4_plant_extracts_/719460", "title"=>"72 hr expression of GAPDH and IL 7 on treatment with different combinations of the 4 plant extracts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-13 02:37:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1086486"], "description"=>"*<p>Significantly different from the control at P≤0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "genetics", "immunology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "il", "mrna", "iec-6", "cells", "subjected", "medicinal"], "article_id"=>719461, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter G. Mwitari", "Peter A. Ayeka", "Joyce Ondicho", "Esther N. Matu", "Christine C. Bii"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065619.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_IL_7_mRNA_expression_in_IEC_6_cells_subjected_to_the_4_medicinal_plants_/719461", "title"=>"Relative IL 7 mRNA expression in IEC-6 cells subjected to the 4 medicinal plants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-13 02:37:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1086487"], "description"=>"<p>WS (W. somnifera), WU (W. ugandensis), PA (P. africana), SA (Staphylococcus aureus), MRSA (Methicilin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus), MG (Microsporum gypseum), CA (Candida albicans), CN (Cryptococcus neoformans), TM (Trichophyton mentagrophytes), ND (Not done).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "genetics", "immunology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "mm", "extracts", "bacterial", "fungal"], "article_id"=>719462, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter G. Mwitari", "Peter A. Ayeka", "Joyce Ondicho", "Esther N. Matu", "Christine C. Bii"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065619.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_MIC_8217_s_in_mm_of_selected_extracts_against_bacterial_and_fungal_strains_/719462", "title"=>"The MIC’s in mm of selected extracts against bacterial and fungal strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-13 02:37:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1086488"], "description"=>"<p>WS (W. somnifera), WU (W. ugandensis), PA (P. africana), SA (Staphylococcus aureus), MRSA (Methicilin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus), MG (Microsporum gypseum), CA (Candida albicans), CN (Cryptococcus neoformans), TM (Trichophyton mentagrophytes), NA (Not applicable), ND (Not done).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "genetics", "immunology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "inhibition", "extracts", "bacterial", "fungal"], "article_id"=>719463, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter G. Mwitari", "Peter A. Ayeka", "Joyce Ondicho", "Esther N. Matu", "Christine C. Bii"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065619.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Zones_of_inhibition_mm_of_selected_plant_extracts_against_bacterial_and_fungal_strains_/719463", "title"=>"Zones of inhibition (mm) of selected plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-13 02:37:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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