Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage
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{"title"=>"Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alexis", "last_name"=>"Dinno", "scopus_author_id"=>"16678662600"}, {"first_name"=>"Chelsea", "last_name"=>"Whitney", "scopus_author_id"=>"56338916400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369102160", "sgr"=>"84878941608", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23776536", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878941608", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065730"}, "id"=>"1ccc5639-7480-3acd-9e9a-521ca200ead1", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/same-sex-marriage-perceived-assault-opposite-sex-marriage", "reader_count"=>22, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1081823"], "description"=>"<p>Solid black lines represent our modeled marriages in each year and state, and dashed black lines project opposite sex marriages if same sex marriage laws had not been enacted in each state and year. Observed numbers of marriages are plotted as dots–note that the model follows very closely on the previous year’s observed number of marriages. The 95% confidence intervals of the difference in predicted opposite sex marriages with and without same sex marriage laws in effect are centered on the average of those two predictions. California licensed 18000 same sex marriages in 2008. Connecticut enacted a same sex marriage law in 2008. Iowa enacted a same sex marriage law in 2009. Massachusetts enacted a same sex marriage law in 2004. Vermont enacted a same sex marriage law in 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Social prejudice", "demography", "Human families", "Sexual and gender issues", "differences", "marriages", "states", "enacting"], "article_id"=>716576, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Alexis Dinno", "Chelsea Whitney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Projected_differences_in_annual_opposite_sex_marriages_in_states_enacting_same_sex_marriage_laws_/716576", "title"=>"Projected differences in annual opposite sex marriages in states enacting same sex marriage laws.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-11 01:49:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1081824"], "description"=>"<p>The arithmetic mean of the estimates from all ten imputed data sets.</p><p>Combined standard errors account for both within- and between-imputation estimate variance.</p><p>95% confidence intervals are given by the estimate .</p><p>-values are -values adjusted upward to account for twelve multiple comparisons; compare to .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Social prejudice", "demography", "Human families", "Sexual and gender issues", "laws", "rates"], "article_id"=>716577, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Alexis Dinno", "Chelsea Whitney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_same_sex_marriage_and_union_laws_on_opposite_sex_marriage_rates_N_8202_8202_1071_/716577", "title"=>"Effects of same sex marriage and union laws on opposite sex marriage rates (N = 1071).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-11 01:49:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1081825"], "description"=>"<p>The quotient of the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730#pone-0065730-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> estimates and their standard errors.</p><p>The critical value where is a quantile function of the noncentral -distribution, the degrees of freedom are from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730#pone.0065730.e075\" target=\"_blank\">equation 2</a>, and is the noncentrality parameter of , and the is the cumulative density of at <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730#pone.0065730-Wellek1\" target=\"_blank\">[56]</a>. Because under the null hypothesis of difference, one of the two single-tails of the tests must be rejected, these -values should be compared to rather than to for the common interpretation of false rejection under null hypotheses of difference <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730#pone.0065730-Wellek1\" target=\"_blank\">[56]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730#pone.0065730-Tryon1\" target=\"_blank\">[60]</a>.</p><p>The -values for and are not explicitly reported because the figures remain just as the -values within the precision of this table.</p><p>, where is the position of ordered -values from smallest to largest. When stepping down from largest to smallest , all hypotheses are rejected including and subsequent to the first with to control the FDR for twelve multiple comparisons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Social prejudice", "demography", "Human families", "Sexual and gender issues", "rates"], "article_id"=>716578, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Alexis Dinno", "Chelsea Whitney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Equivalence_tests_for_dynamic_effects_on_opposite_sex_marriage_rates_N_8202_8202_1071_/716578", "title"=>"Equivalence tests for dynamic effects on opposite sex marriage rates (N = 1071).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-11 01:49:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1081827", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1081841"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Social prejudice", "demography", "Human families", "Sexual and gender issues"], "article_id"=>716580, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Alexis Dinno", "Chelsea Whitney"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065730.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>18, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Same_Sex_Marriage_and_the_Perceived_Assault_on_Opposite_Sex_Marriage_/716580", "title"=>"Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-06-11 01:49:40"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[278, 463, 587, 692, 804, 897, 984, 1068, 1165, 1254, 1339, 1429, 1490]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}]}
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