An Immature Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae) Nasal Reveals Unexpected Complexity of Craniofacial Ontogeny and Integument in Pachyrhinosaurus
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{"title"=>"An Immature Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae) Nasal Reveals Unexpected Complexity of Craniofacial Ontogeny and Integument in Pachyrhinosaurus", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anthony R.", "last_name"=>"Fiorillo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005412971"}, {"first_name"=>"Ronald S.", "last_name"=>"Tykoski", "scopus_author_id"=>"22235354300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84879199017", "pui"=>"369155239", "pmid"=>"23840371", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879199017", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065802"}, "id"=>"9941c3fb-9fb3-3b6f-856c-643c3c58d6e7", "abstract"=>"A new specimen attributable to an immature individual of Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum (Dinosauria, Ceratopsidae) from the Kikak-Tegoseak Quarry in northern Alaska preserves a mix of features that provides refinement to the sequence of ontogenetic stages and transformations inferred for the development of the nasal boss in Pachyrhinosaurus. The new specimen consists of an incomplete nasal that includes the posterior part of the nasal horn, the dorsal surface between the horn and the left-side contacts for the prefrontal and frontal, and some of the left side of the rostrum posteroventral to the nasal horn. The combination of morphologies in the new specimen suggests either an additional stage of development should be recognized in the ontogeny of the nasal boss of Pachyrhinosaurus, or that the ontogenetic pathway of nasal boss development in P. perotorum was notably different from that of P. lakustai. Additionally, the presence of a distinct basal sulcus and the lateral palisade texture on the nasal horn of the specimen described here indicate that a thick, cornified horn sheath was present well before the formation of a dorsal cornified pad. A separate rugose patch on the nasal well posterior to the nasal horn is evidence for a cornified integumentary structure, most likely a thick cornified pad, on the posterior part of the nasal separate from the nasal horn prior to the onset of nasal boss formation in P. perotorum.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/immature-pachyrhinosaurus-perotorum-dinosauria-ceratopsidae-nasal-reveals-unexpected-complexity-cran", "reader_count"=>15, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1093492"], "description"=>"<p>A. DMNH 21460, <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> incomplete nasal superimposed on line drawing of hypothetical immature individual skull. B, DMNH 22558, <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> incomplete skull of mature individual. Both images in left lateral view and to scale. Scale bar equals 50 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biota", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "biogeography", "paleoecology", "immature", "specimen"], "article_id"=>725516, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Anthony R. Fiorillo", "Ronald S. Tykoski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_new_immature_specimen_and_adult_skull_of_Pachyrhinosaurus_perotorum_/725516", "title"=>"Comparison of new, immature specimen and ‘adult’ skull of <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-19 01:31:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1093488"], "description"=>"<p>Kikak-Tegoseak Quarry indicated by red star.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biota", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "biogeography", "paleoecology", "approximate", "kikak-tegoseak"], "article_id"=>725512, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Anthony R. Fiorillo", "Ronald S. Tykoski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_showing_approximate_location_of_the_Kikak_Tegoseak_Quarry_North_Slope_Alaska_U_S_A_/725512", "title"=>"Map showing approximate location of the Kikak-Tegoseak Quarry, North Slope, Alaska, U.S.A.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-19 01:31:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1093486"], "description"=>"<p>In the first description of <i>Pachryhinosaurus</i> by Sternberg <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802#pone.0065802-Sternberg1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a>, he speculated that the enlarged nasal boss in the taxon might have been used in head battering or pushing behavior, an idea emphasized by this image of two <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> sparring with their craniofacial bosses, while a third looks on. Artwork by K. Carr.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biota", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "biogeography", "paleoecology", "rendering", "engaged"], "article_id"=>725510, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Anthony R. Fiorillo", "Ronald S. Tykoski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>115, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Artistic_rendering_of_Pachyrhinosaurus_perotorum_engaged_in_head_butting_pushing_behavior_/725510", "title"=>"Artistic rendering of <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> engaged in head-butting/pushing behavior.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-19 01:31:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1093500"], "description"=>"<p>Hypothesis of craniofacial changes in osteology and integument through some of the ontogenetic stages of <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802#pone-0065802-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>. Stage 2 skull based on juvenile <i>P. lakustai</i> of Currie et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802#pone.0065802-Currie1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>. Stage 4 skull based on DMNH 21460. Stage 6 skull based on DMNH 22558 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802#pone.0065802-Fiorillo1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>. Right-side ‘life’ reconstructions based on hypotheses of <i>Pachyrhinosaurus</i> integument structures of Hieronymus et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802#pone.0065802-Hieronymus1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>, and new data from DMNH 21460. Light tan indicates ‘normal’ skin, while dark brown indicates cornified scales, horns, sheaths, or other cornified tissue. Scale bar equals 50 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biota", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "biogeography", "paleoecology", "skulls", "integument", "reconstruction"], "article_id"=>725521, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Anthony R. Fiorillo", "Ronald S. Tykoski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pachyrhinosaurus_perotorum_skulls_and_integument_reconstruction_through_ontogeny_/725521", "title"=>"<i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> skulls and integument reconstruction through ontogeny.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-19 01:32:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1093498"], "description"=>"<p>A. DMNH 2013, <i>Synceros caffer</i> skull in left lateral oblique and dorsolateral view, showing exposed left frontal boss and proximal base of osseous horn core. B. Same specimen in closer, dorsal view centered on rugose frontal boss area. C. Close up of area inside rectangle in B. D. DMNH 21460, <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i>, close-up of posterior end of nasal in left lateral and slightly dorsal view. E. Close up of area inside rectangle in D. Ellipses in C and E surround clusters of similar densely spaced, small foramina. Abbreviations: bs, basal sulcus; fb, frontal boss; ri, ridge separating rugose area from smooth bone; rug, rugose patch on dorsal surface of nasal; sb, smooth bone surface. Scale bar in A through C shows divisions in cm. Scale bar in D equals 5 cm. Scale bar in E equals 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biota", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "biogeography", "paleoecology", "correlates", "cornified"], "article_id"=>725520, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Anthony R. Fiorillo", "Ronald S. Tykoski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Osteological_correlates_for_a_thick_cornified_pad_in_Synceros_caffer_and_Pachyrhinosaurus_perotorum_/725520", "title"=>"Osteological correlates for a thick cornified pad in <i>Synceros caffer</i> and <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-19 01:32:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1093490"], "description"=>"<p>A. Nasal in left lateral view. B. Line drawing of nasal in left lateral view. C. Nasal in right lateral view. D. Line drawing of nasal in right lateral view. E. Nasal in dorsal view. F. Line drawing of nasal in dorsal view. G. Nasal in anterior view. H. Line drawing of nasal in anterior view. I. Hypothetical ‘subadult’ <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> skull outline with DMNH 21460 superimposed to show approximate location of specimen in the skull. Abbreviations: bs, basal sulcus; fr, frontal contact; ms, median sulcus; nh, nasal horn/incipient nasal boss; prf, prefrontal contact; ri, ridge laterally bounding rugose area; rug, rugose patch on dorsal surface of nasal; sb, smooth bone. Gray fill indicates broken bone surfaces or cracks. Scale bars equal 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biota", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "biogeography", "paleoecology", "interpretive", "drawings", "dmnh", "incomplete"], "article_id"=>725514, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Anthony R. Fiorillo", "Ronald S. Tykoski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>119, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Photographs_and_interpretive_line_drawings_of_DMNH_21460_Pachyrhinosaurus_perotorum_incomplete_nasal_/725514", "title"=>"Photographs and interpretive line drawings of DMNH 21460, <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> incomplete nasal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-19 01:31:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1093503"], "description"=>"<p>New hypothesis of ontogenetic stages for the nasal boss of <i>Pachyrhinosaurus</i> based on new information (marked by asterisks) derived from DMNH 21460, an incomplete nasal from an immature <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> individual from Alaska.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biota", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "biogeography", "paleoecology", "ontogenetic", "stages", "nasal", "derived", "dmnh", "incomplete", "immature"], "article_id"=>725523, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Anthony R. Fiorillo", "Ronald S. Tykoski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_New_hypothesis_of_ontogenetic_stages_for_the_nasal_boss_of_Pachyrhinosaurus_based_on_new_information_marked_by_asterisks_derived_from_DMNH_21460_an_incomplete_nasal_from_an_immature_Pachyrhinosaurus_perotorum_individual_from_Alaska_/725523", "title"=>"New hypothesis of ontogenetic stages for the nasal boss of <i>Pachyrhinosaurus</i> based on new information (marked by asterisks) derived from DMNH 21460, an incomplete nasal from an immature <i>Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum</i> individual from Alaska.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-19 01:32:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1093502"], "description"=>"<p>Ontogenetic stages of nasal boss development in <i>Pachyrhinosaurus</i> (Stage 1 youngest), based upon descriptions and inferences of Currie et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802#pone.0065802-Currie1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biota", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "biogeography", "paleoecology", "stages", "nasal", "descriptions", "inferences", "currie", "et"], "article_id"=>725522, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Anthony R. Fiorillo", "Ronald S. Tykoski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065802.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ontogenetic_stages_of_nasal_boss_development_in_Pachyrhinosaurus_Stage_1_youngest_based_upon_descriptions_and_inferences_of_Currie_et_al_4_/725522", "title"=>"Ontogenetic stages of nasal boss development in <i>Pachyrhinosaurus</i> (Stage 1 youngest), based upon descriptions and inferences of Currie et al. [4].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-19 01:32:02"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 440, 562, 666, 765, 856, 944, 1028, 1112, 1198, 1282, 1362, 1430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[605, 959, 1140, 1273, 1412, 1552, 1709, 1830, 1959, 2077, 2241, 2360, 2456]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[591, 936, 1096, 1257, 1426, 1560, 1700, 1841, 1976, 2133, 2250, 2381, 2482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 441, 564, 668, 769, 859, 948, 1034, 1117, 1202, 1290, 1368, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[250, 417, 535, 649, 758, 857, 952, 1036, 1113, 1206, 1287, 1353, 1429]}]}
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