The Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption: New Data on Volcanic Ash Dispersal and Its Potential Impact on Human Evolution
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{"title"=>"The Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption: New Data on Volcanic Ash Dispersal and Its Potential Impact on Human Evolution", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kathryn E.", "last_name"=>"Fitzsimmons", "scopus_author_id"=>"55889793300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ulrich", "last_name"=>"Hambach", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602503877"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Veres", "scopus_author_id"=>"16302466200"}, {"first_name"=>"Radu", "last_name"=>"Iovita", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506567945"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879132606", "sgr"=>"84879132606", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0065839", "pmid"=>"23799050", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"369142047"}, "id"=>"04356670-31ed-38ba-ad6f-f435e0ca97a8", "abstract"=>"The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) volcanic eruption was the most explosive in Europe in the last 200,000 years. The event coincided with the onset of an extremely cold climatic phase known as Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) approximately 40,000 years ago. Their combined effect may have exacerbated the severity of the climate through positive feedbacks across Europe and possibly globally. The CI event is of particular interest not only to investigate the role of volcanism on climate forcing and palaeoenvironments, but also because its timing coincides with the arrival into Europe of anatomically modern humans, the demise of Neanderthals, and an associated major shift in lithic technology. At this stage, however, the degree of interaction between these factors is poorly known, based on fragmentary and widely dispersed data points. In this study we provide important new data from Eastern Europe which indicate that the magnitude of the CI eruption and impact of associated distal ash (tephra) deposits may have been substantially greater than existing models suggest. The scale of the eruption is modelled by tephra distribution and thickness, supported by local data points. CI ashfall extends as far as the Russian Plain, Eastern Mediterranean and northern Africa. However, modelling input is limited by very few data points in Eastern Europe. Here we investigate an unexpectedly thick CI tephra deposit in the southeast Romanian loess steppe, positively identified using geochemical and geochronological analyses. We establish the tephra as a widespread primary deposit, which blanketed the topography both thickly and rapidly, with potentially catastrophic impacts on local ecosystems. Our discovery not only highlights the need to reassess models for the magnitude of the eruption and its role in climatic transition, but also suggests that it may have substantially influenced hominin population and subsistence dynamics in a region strategic for human migration into Europe.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/campanian-ignimbrite-eruption-new-data-volcanic-ash-dispersal-potential-impact-human-evolution-3", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Bulgaria"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1090445"], "description"=>"<p>Inset shows the projected extent of >0.1 cm tephra thickness, based on data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839#pone.0065839-Costa1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geochemistry", "Geochronology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "Physical geography", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "archaeometry", "Geosystems", "danube", "modelled", "observed", "thickness", "ci", "tephra"], "article_id"=>723042, "categories"=>["Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons", "Ulrich Hambach", "Daniel Veres", "Radu Iovita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_Lower_Danube_region_showing_the_contrast_between_modelled_12_and_observed_thickness_of_the_CI_tephra_this_study_5_/723042", "title"=>"Map of the Lower Danube region showing the contrast between modelled [12] and observed thickness of the CI tephra (this study; [5]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-17 00:50:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1090446"], "description"=>"<p>Location of Urluia loess deposit, southeastern Romania (a), and distribution and thickness of loess deposits in the lower Danube region (b; redrawn using data from from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839#pone.0065839-Haase1\" target=\"_blank\">[57]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geochemistry", "Geochronology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "Physical geography", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "archaeometry", "Geosystems", "urluia", "loess", "southeastern", "romania", "thickness", "deposits", "danube", "redrawn"], "article_id"=>723043, "categories"=>["Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons", "Ulrich Hambach", "Daniel Veres", "Radu Iovita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>22, "page_views"=>500, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_Urluia_loess_deposit_southeastern_Romania_a_and_distribution_and_thickness_of_loess_deposits_in_the_lower_Danube_region_b_redrawn_using_data_from_from_57_/723043", "title"=>"Location of Urluia loess deposit, southeastern Romania (a), and distribution and thickness of loess deposits in the lower Danube region (b; redrawn using data from from [57]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-17 00:50:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1090449"], "description"=>"<p>a. Photograph of the site. b. Stratigraphic section, showing luminescence ages and methods used. c. Magnetic susceptibility of the northwest and southeast loess profiles, showing frequency dependent (χ<sub>fd</sub>) and magnetic low field susceptibility (χ<sub>,</sub>) as functions of stratigraphy below and above the tephra layer. Bulk χ reflects the concentration of the magnetisable fraction in sediments; χ<sub>fd</sub> reflects the relative amount of pedogenetic and diagenetic neo-formation of ultrafine Fe-particles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geochemistry", "Geochronology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "Physical geography", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "archaeometry", "Geosystems", "tephra"], "article_id"=>723044, "categories"=>["Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons", "Ulrich Hambach", "Daniel Veres", "Radu Iovita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_tephra_deposit_at_Urluia_/723044", "title"=>"The tephra deposit at Urluia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-17 00:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1090450"], "description"=>"<p>a. Geochemical profile of the Urluia tephra compared with CI data from Italy, eastern Europe and Mediterranean Sea cores <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839#pone.0065839-Civetta1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839#pone.0065839-Pyle1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839#pone.0065839-Morley1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839#pone.0065839-Signorelli1\" target=\"_blank\">[66]</a>. b. Photograph of the contact between the tephra and underlying loess deposits. c. Photomicrograph from scanning electron microscope (SEM) of tephra shards. d. Vegetation imprints at the basal contact of the tephra with the loess (looking upward), collected from the exposure at Urluia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geochemistry", "Geochronology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "Physical geography", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "archaeometry", "Geosystems", "tephra"], "article_id"=>723045, "categories"=>["Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons", "Ulrich Hambach", "Daniel Veres", "Radu Iovita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>45, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_tephra_at_Urluia_/723045", "title"=>"Characteristics of the tephra at Urluia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-17 00:50:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1090452"], "description"=>"<p>Samples analysed by OSL are shown in plain text; those analysed using the post-IR IRSL protocol are shown in italics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geochemistry", "Geochronology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "Physical geography", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "archaeometry", "Geosystems", "dating", "estimates", "ci", "tephra", "urluia"], "article_id"=>723047, "categories"=>["Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons", "Ulrich Hambach", "Daniel Veres", "Radu Iovita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Luminescence_dating_data_and_age_estimates_for_the_CI_tephra_at_the_Urluia_site_/723047", "title"=>"Luminescence dating data and age estimates for the CI tephra at the Urluia site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-17 00:50:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1090453"], "description"=>"<p>Geochemical analyses of major and minor element concentrations for tephra samples URL1 and URL2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geochemistry", "Geochronology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "Physical geography", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "archaeometry", "Geosystems", "concentrations", "tephra", "samples", "url1"], "article_id"=>723048, "categories"=>["Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons", "Ulrich Hambach", "Daniel Veres", "Radu Iovita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geochemical_analyses_of_major_and_minor_element_concentrations_for_tephra_samples_URL1_and_URL2_/723048", "title"=>"Geochemical analyses of major and minor element concentrations for tephra samples URL1 and URL2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-17 00:50:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1090454"], "description"=>"<div><p>The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) volcanic eruption was the most explosive in Europe in the last 200,000 years. The event coincided with the onset of an extremely cold climatic phase known as Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) approximately 40,000 years ago. Their combined effect may have exacerbated the severity of the climate through positive feedbacks across Europe and possibly globally. The CI event is of particular interest not only to investigate the role of volcanism on climate forcing and palaeoenvironments, but also because its timing coincides with the arrival into Europe of anatomically modern humans, the demise of Neanderthals, and an associated major shift in lithic technology. At this stage, however, the degree of interaction between these factors is poorly known, based on fragmentary and widely dispersed data points. In this study we provide important new data from Eastern Europe which indicate that the magnitude of the CI eruption and impact of associated distal ash (tephra) deposits may have been substantially greater than existing models suggest. The scale of the eruption is modelled by tephra distribution and thickness, supported by local data points. CI ashfall extends as far as the Russian Plain, Eastern Mediterranean and northern Africa. However, modelling input is limited by very few data points in Eastern Europe. Here we investigate an unexpectedly thick CI tephra deposit in the southeast Romanian loess steppe, positively identified using geochemical and geochronological analyses. We establish the tephra as a widespread primary deposit, which blanketed the topography both thickly and rapidly, with potentially catastrophic impacts on local ecosystems. Our discovery not only highlights the need to reassess models for the magnitude of the eruption and its role in climatic transition, but also suggests that it may have substantially influenced hominin population and subsistence dynamics in a region strategic for human migration into Europe.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geochemistry", "Geochronology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "Physical geography", "anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "archaeology", "archaeometry", "Geosystems", "campanian", "ignimbrite", "volcanic", "dispersal"], "article_id"=>723049, "categories"=>["Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons", "Ulrich Hambach", "Daniel Veres", "Radu Iovita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065839", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Campanian_Ignimbrite_Eruption_New_Data_on_Volcanic_Ash_Dispersal_and_Its_Potential_Impact_on_Human_Evolution_/723049", "title"=>"The Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption: New Data on Volcanic Ash Dispersal and Its Potential Impact on Human Evolution", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-17 00:50:49"}

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Relative Metric

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