Sun Compass Orientation Helps Coral Reef Fish Larvae Return to Their Natal Reef
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{"title"=>"Sun Compass Orientation Helps Coral Reef Fish Larvae Return to Their Natal Reef", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Henrik", "last_name"=>"Mouritsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602169142"}, {"first_name"=>"Jelle", "last_name"=>"Atema", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004860580"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Kingsford", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004059723"}, {"first_name"=>"Gabriele", "last_name"=>"Gerlach", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006596119"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23840396", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0066039", "pui"=>"369200433", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879487270", "sgr"=>"84879487270"}, "id"=>"f3f889bc-1f79-368a-9587-640f5c969df9", "abstract"=>"Reef fish sustain populations on isolated reefs and show genetic diversity between nearby reefs even though larvae of many species are swept away from the natal site during pelagic dispersal. Retention or recruitment to natal reefs requires orientation capabilities that enable larvae to find their way. Although olfactory and acoustically based orientation has been implicated in homing when larvae are in the reef's vicinity, it is still unclear how they cope with greater distances. Here we show evidence for a sun compass mechanism that can bring the larvae to the vicinity of their natal reef. In a circular arena, pre-settlement larvae and early settlers (<24 hours) of the cardinal fish, Ostorhinchus doederleini, showed a strong SSE directional swimming response, which most likely has evolved to compensate for the locally prevailing large scale NNW current drift. When fish were clock-shifted 6 hours, they changed their orientation by ca. 180° as predicted by the tropical sun curve at One Tree Island, i.e. they used a time-compensated sun compass. Furthermore, the fish oriented most consistently at times of the day when the sun azimuth is easy to determine. Microsatellite markers showed that the larvae that had just arrived at One Tree Island genetically belonged to either the local reef population or to Fitzroy Reef located 12 kilometers to the SSE. The use of a sun compass adds a missing long-distance link to the hierarchy of other sensory abilities that can direct larvae to the region of origin, including their natal reef. Predominant local recruitment, in turn, can contribute to genetic isolation and potential speciation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sun-compass-orientation-helps-coral-reef-fish-larvae-return-natal-reef", "reader_count"=>78, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102455"], "description"=>"<p>One Tree reef (OTI, 23°30′S, 152°06′E) is one of fourteen reefs in the Capricorn Bunker Group in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. OTI is situated 90 km from the Queensland coast and 5–10 km southeast of neighboring reefs Heron and Sykes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Marine biology", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences"], "article_id"=>732621, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Henrik Mouritsen", "Jelle Atema", "Michael J. Kingsford", "Gabriele Gerlach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_One_tree_Island_/732621", "title"=>"Location of One tree Island.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:31:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102462"], "description"=>"*<p>One sample (OTI11, HM2) could not be used for genetics. “(cs)” means that this individual was clock-shifted after being tested under non-clock-shifted conditions. Genetic assignment of thirteen post-settlement larvae caught at the One Tree reef (OTI) tested for orientation in the sun compass using five microsatellite markers; the first two ranks (i.e. the two most likely origins of the larvae) and their probability score are shown. Statistical analysis was performed following the Bayesian approach by Rannala <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039#pone.0066039-Rannala1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>. L (Lamont), H (Heron) F (Fitzroy).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Marine biology", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "settled", "larval", "reef"], "article_id"=>732628, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Henrik Mouritsen", "Jelle Atema", "Michael J. Kingsford", "Gabriele Gerlach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_assignment_of_recently_settled_larval_O_doederleini_to_adult_reef_populations_/732628", "title"=>"Genetic assignment of recently settled larval <i>O. doederleini</i> to adult reef populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:31:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102459"], "description"=>"<p>The fish’s orientation in the non-clock-shifted condition is defined as 0 degrees and the orientation of each individual fish after the clock-shift compared to before the clock-shift is indicated by the dots at the circle periphery (2011 and 2012 fish combined). Thus, a point in 0 degrees would mean no difference between an individual fish’s orientation in the clock-shifted and non-clock-shifted condition. On average, the fish highly significantly shifted their orientation by 172 degrees clockwise in the clock-shifted condition compared to the same fish’s orientation in the non-clock-shifted condition (Rayleigh Test, mean direction = 172, r = 0.83, n = 12, p<0.001. Furthermore, even 99.9% confidence intervals do not include 0 degrees), and the 95% confidence interval (150–195 degrees) amply includes the predicted 180 degrees shift. Raw data in Table S4 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039#pone.0066039.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>. For description of the circular diagram, see legend to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039#pone-0066039-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Marine biology", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "clock-shifted", "compared", "non-clock-shifted"], "article_id"=>732625, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Henrik Mouritsen", "Jelle Atema", "Michael J. Kingsford", "Gabriele Gerlach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_orientation_of_the_individual_fish_in_the_clock_shifted_condition_compared_to_the_same_fish_8217_s_orientation_the_non_clock_shifted_condition_/732625", "title"=>"Relative orientation of the individual fish in the clock-shifted condition compared to the same fish’s orientation the non-clock-shifted condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:31:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102457"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>: Fourteen just-settled <i>O. doederleini</i> tested under natural sunny skies in 2011 showed a clear orientation towards SSE (mean direction: 152°, r = 0.88, n = 14, p<0.001). <b>B</b>: When five of these fish were clock-shifted 6 hours backwards, they turned their orientation by ca. 180° (mean direction: 344°, r = 0.94, n = 5, p<0.01). <b>C, D</b>: In January 2012, we repeated the experiments with pre-settlement fish and got very similar results. Seven pre-settlement <i>O. doederleini</i> tested under natural sunny skies showed a clear orientation towards SSE (<b>C</b>: mean direction: 161°, r = 0.91, n = 7, p<0.001). When all 7 fish were clock-shifted 6 hours backwards, they turned their orientation by ca. 180° (<b>D</b>: mean direction: 321°, r = 0.92, n = 7, p<0.001). Each dot at the circle periphery indicates the mean orientation chosen by each individual fish based on the second order average of all tests made with a given fish in the given condition. Arrows indicate the group mean vectors. Inner and outer dashed circles indicate the radius of the group mean vector needed for significance according to the Rayleigh Test (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Lines flanking the group mean vector indicate the 95% confidence intervals for the group mean direction. <b>E</b>: We performed all orientation tests between 20/Jan and 01/Feb. The yellow curve in <b>E</b> shows the height of the sun above the horizon at One Tree Island calculated for 25 January 2012 (90° means directly overhead, 0° means that the sun is at the horizon). The blue curve in <b>E</b> is the sun azimuth curve at One Tree Island calculated for 25 January 2012. Notice that in the morning until about 11∶15, the sun azimuth is very consistently in the East (117°–77°). Likewise, in the afternoon from 12∶45 onwards, the sun azimuth is very consistently in the West (293°–243°). In contrast, at noon between 11∶15 and 12∶45, the sun is more or less directly overhead (the sun is 78–86 degrees above the horizon, see yellow curve) and the sun azimuth changes by 139 degrees in just 90 minutes. <b>F</b> is showing how strongly oriented the individual fish were during tests in the different time intervals. The left y-axis is indicating the length of the mean vector, “r”, calculated by vector addition of the 40 observed directions during a single test of a given individual. The greater the r, the more consistently the fish oriented. The mean vector length is inversely proportional to the angular standard deviation (s = (-ln(r))½) which is indicated on the right y-axis. Figure <b>F</b> is aligned exactly under Figure <b>E</b> so that the blue dashed lines identify the time range and sun azimuth positions that contributed data to each of the six time blocks. Notice that the fish oriented very poorly during the 11∶15–12∶45 time block, when a sun compass would be very difficult to use because the sun is almost directly overhead and shows an exceptionally rapid change in azimuth (139 degrees in just 90 minutes, i.e. 1.5 degrees/minute). Accurate orientation during this time would require a very precise synchronization of the animals’ internal clock to the specific sun curve. In contrast, late in the afternoon when a sun compass would be particularly easy to use because the sun azimuth changes very slowly and because the sun is close to the horizon, the fish showed extremely directed orientation. The unusual sun curve also means that a 6 hour clock-shift where the animals wake up around midnight and are tested before noon, when they think it is afternoon, leads to an extremely consistent predicted change in orientation of 180 degrees. This is documented by the red curve in Fig. <b>E</b>, which shows the predicted clockwise shift in orientation following a 6 hour clock-shift as a function of the time of day during which the fish are tested after being clock-shifted 6 hours. The red curve was calculated as follows: the Sun azimuth at testing time - the sun azimuth 6 hours later. We tested our clock-shifted fish between 06∶45 and 11∶02 (as indicated by the dashed vertical red lines) when the expected orientation of the 6 hrs time shifted larvae predicts a 180 degree shift for this entire 4∶17-hr observation window.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Marine biology", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "time-compensated", "compass", "orient"], "article_id"=>732623, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Henrik Mouritsen", "Jelle Atema", "Michael J. Kingsford", "Gabriele Gerlach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>125, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Settling_stage_Ostorhinchus_doederleini_use_a_time_compensated_sun_compass_to_orient_towards_SSE_/732623", "title"=>"Settling stage <i>Ostorhinchus doederleini</i> use a time-compensated sun compass to orient towards SSE.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:31:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102465"], "description"=>"<div><p>Reef fish sustain populations on isolated reefs and show genetic diversity between nearby reefs even though larvae of many species are swept away from the natal site during pelagic dispersal. Retention or recruitment to natal reefs requires orientation capabilities that enable larvae to find their way. Although olfactory and acoustically based orientation has been implicated in homing when larvae are in the reef’s vicinity, it is still unclear how they cope with greater distances. Here we show evidence for a sun compass mechanism that can bring the larvae to the vicinity of their natal reef. In a circular arena, pre-settlement larvae and early settlers (<24 hours) of the cardinal fish, <i>Ostorhinchus doederleini</i>, showed a strong SSE directional swimming response, which most likely has evolved to compensate for the locally prevailing large scale NNW current drift. When fish were clock-shifted 6 hours, they changed their orientation by ca. 180° as predicted by the tropical sun curve at One Tree Island, i.e. they used a time-compensated sun compass. Furthermore, the fish oriented most consistently at times of the day when the sun azimuth is easy to determine. Microsatellite markers showed that the larvae that had just arrived at One Tree Island genetically belonged to either the local reef population or to Fitzroy Reef located 12 kilometers to the SSE. The use of a sun compass adds a missing long-distance link to the hierarchy of other sensory abilities that can direct larvae to the region of origin, including their natal reef. Predominant local recruitment, in turn, can contribute to genetic isolation and potential speciation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Marine biology", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "compass", "helps", "coral", "reef", "larvae", "natal"], "article_id"=>732631, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Henrik Mouritsen", "Jelle Atema", "Michael J. Kingsford", "Gabriele Gerlach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sun_Compass_Orientation_Helps_Coral_Reef_Fish_Larvae_Return_to_Their_Natal_Reef_/732631", "title"=>"Sun Compass Orientation Helps Coral Reef Fish Larvae Return to Their Natal Reef", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:31:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102461"], "description"=>"<p>Red dots indicate the locations at ebb tide of passively dispersed particles 8 days after release from One Tree Reef according to the dispersal experiments and model calculations (Red dots drawn after Fig. 1C in reference <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039#pone.0066039-Gerlach1\" target=\"_blank\">[2]</a>). At flood tide the dots will be displaced 5–7 km WNW. Notice that most larvae considered as passive particles for their first 8 days would be transported significantly to the NNW beyond the odor halo of OTI (idealized odor halos in decreasing intensity blue) and even beyond neighboring reefs to the NNW before they gain sustained swimming capabilities. The polar diagram shows the time-compensated sun compass orientation of just-settled (•) and pre-settlement (o) larvae (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039#pone-0066039-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2A and 2C</a> combined: mean direction 155°, n = 21, r = 0.89, p<0.001). One-week old <i>O. doederleini</i> larvae (symbolized by the dispersed cloud of red dots) would be more likely to relocate the OTI reef if they used a sun compass to swim actively toward SSE, than if they would swim in random directions. Picture shows settling stage <i>Ostorhinchus doederleini.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Marine biology", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Ichthyology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "illustrating", "time-compensated", "compass", "passively", "drifted", "reef", "larvae", "relocate", "natal", "oti"], "article_id"=>732627, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Henrik Mouritsen", "Jelle Atema", "Michael J. Kingsford", "Gabriele Gerlach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066039.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_illustrating_how_a_time_compensated_sun_compass_could_help_passively_drifted_reef_fish_larvae_to_relocate_their_natal_OTI_reef_/732627", "title"=>"Model illustrating how a time-compensated sun compass could help passively drifted reef fish larvae to relocate their natal OTI reef.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:31:10"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biomechanics", "average_usage"=>[262, 443, 579, 690, 795, 884, 991, 1089, 1183, 1275, 1366, 1445, 1522]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Equipment", "average_usage"=>[246, 440, 558, 647, 746, 842, 937, 1028, 1116, 1191, 1253, 1348, 1420]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}]}
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