Why Selective Publication of Statistically Significant Results Can Be Effective
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{"title"=>"Why Selective Publication of Statistically Significant Results Can Be Effective", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joost", "last_name"=>"de Winter", "scopus_author_id"=>"8311196100"}, {"first_name"=>"Riender", "last_name"=>"Happee", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602143135"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369157914", "sgr"=>"84879259544", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23840479", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879259544", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0066463", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0066463"}, "id"=>"246f9e36-55de-3c1b-8b4b-86a89071ee29", "abstract"=>"Concerns exist within the medical and psychological sciences that many published research findings are not replicable. Guidelines accordingly recommend that the file drawer effect should be eliminated and that statistical significance should not be a criterion in the decision to submit and publish scientific results. By means of a simulation study, we show that selectively publishing effects that differ significantly from the cumulative meta-analytic effect evokes the Proteus phenomenon of poorly replicable and alternating findings. However, the simulation also shows that the selective publication approach yields a scientific record that is content rich as compared to publishing everything, in the sense that fewer publications are needed for obtaining an accurate meta-analytic estimation of the true effect. We conclude that, under the assumption of self-correcting science, the file drawer effect can be beneficial for the scientific collective.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/selective-publication-statistically-significant-results-effective", "reader_count"=>89, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Philosophy"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Mathematics"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Sports and Recreations"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>31, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>31}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>3, "Austria"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "Bulgaria"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1095417"], "description"=>"<p>The black lines represent the situation where <i>E<sub>obs</sub></i> is tested with respect to 0. The red lines represent the situation when ignoring the 3 latest publications for determining <i>E<sub>meta</sub></i>. The means and standard deviations are calculated across the 5,000 repetitions of the simulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computerized simulations", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Research validity", "Research errors", "Publication practices", "Research monitoring", "Research reporting guidelines", "Research integrity", "Publication ethics", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "deviation", "dashed", "cumulative", "meta-analytic"], "article_id"=>726976, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joost de Winter", "Riender Happee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066463.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_thicker_solid_lines_and_mean_plus_minus_one_standard_deviation_thinner_dashed_lines_of_cumulative_meta_analytic_effect_as_a_function_of_the_number_of_publications_/726976", "title"=>"Mean (thicker solid lines) and mean plus/minus one standard deviation (thinner dashed lines) of cumulative meta-analytic effect as a function of the number of publications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:56:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1095414"], "description"=>"<p>Note that the number of studies can vary per repetition because the simulation was terminated when 40 publications were done under the Selective Publication Approach. Only studies having more than 4,500 out of 5,000 <i>E<sub>meta</sub></i> values available are shown (i.e., study numbers 3–585). The means and standard deviations are calculated across the repetitions of the simulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computerized simulations", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Research validity", "Research errors", "Publication practices", "Research monitoring", "Research reporting guidelines", "Research integrity", "Publication ethics", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "deviation", "dashed", "cumulative", "meta-analytic"], "article_id"=>726974, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joost de Winter", "Riender Happee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066463.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_thicker_solid_lines_and_mean_plus_minus_one_standard_deviation_thinner_dashed_lines_of_the_cumulative_meta_analytic_effect_as_a_function_of_the_number_of_studies_/726974", "title"=>"Mean (thicker solid lines) and mean plus/minus one standard deviation (thinner dashed lines) of the cumulative meta-analytic effect as a function of the number of studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:56:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1095410"], "description"=>"<p>(Reprinted from Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 58, J. P. Ioannidis and T. A. Trikalinos, Early extreme contradictory estimates may appear in published research: The Proteus phenomenon in molecular genetics research and randomized trials, pp. 543–549, 2005, with permission from Elsevier.) The figure shows odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of “the relationship between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) TT genotype in the mother and the risk of neural tube defects in the child”. The study with the strongest effect is shown by a square symbol and the study with the smallest effect is shown by a triangular symbol. The white line represents the summary odds ratio. The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval of the summary odds ratio.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computerized simulations", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Research validity", "Research errors", "Publication practices", "Research monitoring", "Research reporting guidelines", "Research integrity", "Publication ethics", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "proteus", "phenemonen", "ioannidis", "trikalinos"], "article_id"=>726971, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joost de Winter", "Riender Happee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066463.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_Proteus_phenemonen_from_Ioannidis_and_Trikalinos_27_/726971", "title"=>"Illustration of Proteus phenemonen from Ioannidis and Trikalinos [27].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:56:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1095413"], "description"=>"<p>The means and standard deviations are calculated across the 5,000 repetitions of the simulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computerized simulations", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Research validity", "Research errors", "Publication practices", "Research monitoring", "Research reporting guidelines", "Research integrity", "Publication ethics", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "deviation", "dashed", "cumulative", "meta-analytic"], "article_id"=>726973, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joost de Winter", "Riender Happee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066463.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_thicker_solid_lines_and_mean_plus_minus_one_standard_deviation_thinner_dashed_lines_of_the_cumulative_meta_analytic_effect_E_meta_as_a_function_of_the_number_of_publications_/726973", "title"=>"Mean (thicker solid lines) and mean plus/minus one standard deviation (thinner dashed lines) of the cumulative meta-analytic effect (<i>E<sub>meta</sub></i>) as a function of the number of publications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:56:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1095412"], "description"=>"<p>The means and standard deviations are calculated across the 5,000 repetitions of the simulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computerized simulations", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Research validity", "Research errors", "Publication practices", "Research monitoring", "Research reporting guidelines", "Research integrity", "Publication ethics", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "deviation", "dashed", "observed", "studies"], "article_id"=>726972, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joost de Winter", "Riender Happee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066463.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_thicker_solid_lines_and_mean_plus_minus_one_standard_deviation_thinner_dashed_lines_of_observed_effects_of_individual_studies_E_obs_pub_as_a_function_of_the_number_of_publications_/726972", "title"=>"Mean (thicker solid lines) and mean plus/minus one standard deviation (thinner dashed lines) of observed effects of individual studies (<i>E<sub>obs,pub</sub></i>) as a function of the number of publications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:56:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1095418"], "description"=>"<div><p>Concerns exist within the medical and psychological sciences that many published research findings are not replicable. Guidelines accordingly recommend that the file drawer effect should be eliminated and that statistical significance should not be a criterion in the decision to submit and publish scientific results. By means of a simulation study, we show that selectively publishing effects that differ significantly from the cumulative meta-analytic effect evokes the Proteus phenomenon of poorly replicable and alternating findings. However, the simulation also shows that the selective publication approach yields a scientific record that is content rich as compared to publishing everything, in the sense that fewer publications are needed for obtaining an accurate meta-analytic estimation of the true effect. We conclude that, under the assumption of self-correcting science, the file drawer effect can be beneficial for the scientific collective.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computerized simulations", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Research validity", "Research errors", "Publication practices", "Research monitoring", "Research reporting guidelines", "Research integrity", "Publication ethics", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "selective"], "article_id"=>726977, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joost de Winter", "Riender Happee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066463", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Why_Selective_Publication_of_Statistically_Significant_Results_Can_Be_Effective_/726977", "title"=>"Why Selective Publication of Statistically Significant Results Can Be Effective", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:56:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1095416"], "description"=>"<p>The means are calculated across the 5,000 repetitions of the simulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computerized simulations", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Research validity", "Research errors", "Publication practices", "Research monitoring", "Research reporting guidelines", "Research integrity", "Publication ethics", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "studies"], "article_id"=>726975, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joost de Winter", "Riender Happee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066463.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_number_of_studies_until_publication_as_a_function_of_the_number_of_publications_/726975", "title"=>"Mean number of studies until publication as a function of the number of publications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:56:15"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}]}
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