Ocular Injury by Transient Formaldehyde Exposure in a Rabbit Eye Model
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{"title"=>"Ocular Injury by Transient Formaldehyde Exposure in a Rabbit Eye Model", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Li Ju", "last_name"=>"Lai", "scopus_author_id"=>"8326428300"}, {"first_name"=>"Wei Hsiu", "last_name"=>"Hsu", "scopus_author_id"=>"35092523100"}, {"first_name"=>"Albert M.", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402998626"}, {"first_name"=>"June H.", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55663586500"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879266784", "sgr"=>"84879266784", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0066649", "pmid"=>"23818956", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"369158036"}, "id"=>"132f7cdb-1216-34da-86ed-100e64316832", "abstract"=>"Formaldehyde (FA) is frequently used in sterilizing surgical instruments and materials. Exposure to FA is highly concerned for eye tissues. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were examined for changes after FA exposure. Our results showed that cell survival decreased 7 days after transient 3 min exposure to more than 100 ppm FA by trypan blue staining while MTT assay detected significant decrease at 20 ppm at 24 hours observation. The decrease of cell survival rate was concentration (up to 600 ppm)- and observation time (1-7 day)- dependent. The cell number decreased after 100 ppm FA exposure for more than 10 min at 7-day observation. The FA treated cells showed increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle accumulation at sub G1 phase as well as mitochondria clustering around nucleus. The in vivo rabbit eye exposure for tear production by Schirmer's test revealed that the FA-induced overproduction of tear also exhibited observation time (1-10 day)- and FA concentration (20-300 ppm for 5 min exposure)-dependent. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK2) in cornea explants by western blotting was reduced and increased c-Jun amino - terminal kinase (JNK) activation (pJNK) in cornea and conjunctiva was evident at 2 month after exposure to 50-200 ppm FA for 5 min. In conclusion, injury to the eye with transient exposure of up to 100 ppm FA for 3 min decreased corneal cell survival while a more sensitive MTT test detected the cell decrease at 20 ppm FA exposure. Morphology changes can be observed even at 5 ppm FA exposure for 3 min at 7 days after. The FA exposure also increased apoptotic/necrotic cells and sub-G1 phase in cell cycle. Long term effect (2 months after exposure) on the eye tissues even after the removal of FA can be observed with persistent JNK activation in cornea and conjunctiva.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ocular-injury-transient-formaldehyde-exposure-rabbit-eye-model", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1094554"], "description"=>"<p>Grading system for cell morphology examined under microscope.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Ocular system", "Biochemistry", "histology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "Signal transduction", "Signaling in cellular processes", "Apoptotic signaling", "Cell growth", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "ophthalmology", "morphology", "examined"], "article_id"=>726366, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Li-Ju Lai", "Wei-Hsiu Hsu", "Albert M. Wu", "June H. Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066649.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grading_system_for_cell_morphology_examined_under_microscope_/726366", "title"=>"Grading system for cell morphology examined under microscope.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:46:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1094550"], "description"=>"<p>In the FITC-Annexin V/PI labeling experiment (a), the corneal epithelial cells were treated with 0, 100, 600 ppm FA for 3 min and examined 4 hours later. Apoptotic (G4 region) and necrotic (G1 and G2 regions) cells appear increased in FA treated cells as compared with the control (0 ppm). In the cell cycle examination (b), FA-treated cells increase at subG1 phase as compared to the control (0 ppm). Bar graphs (c) depict the statistical results of 3 assays. Vertical bar indicates standard deviation of the mean. The [*] indicates P<0.05 as compared to the control (0 ppm) cells. d) Mitotracker staining assay revealed that the mitochondria (bright red) accumulate near the perinuclear region after FA treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Ocular system", "Biochemistry", "histology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "Signal transduction", "Signaling in cellular processes", "Apoptotic signaling", "Cell growth", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "ophthalmology", "graphs", "cytometry", "assays"], "article_id"=>726362, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Li-Ju Lai", "Wei-Hsiu Hsu", "Albert M. Wu", "June H. Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066649.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representative_graphs_of_flow_cytometry_assays_are_shown_in_a_and_b_/726362", "title"=>"Representative graphs of flow cytometry assays are shown in (a) and (b).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:46:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1094545"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage indicates the ratio of surviving cells to total cells in the same dish. Vertical bars indicate standard deviation of the mean. [*] represents P<0.05 as compared to the control group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Ocular system", "Biochemistry", "histology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "Signal transduction", "Signaling in cellular processes", "Apoptotic signaling", "Cell growth", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "ophthalmology", "corneal", "epithelial", "cells", "exposed", "fa", "concentrations", "minutes", "examined", "days"], "article_id"=>726357, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Li-Ju Lai", "Wei-Hsiu Hsu", "Albert M. Wu", "June H. Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066649.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_survival_rate_of_rabbit_corneal_epithelial_cells_exposed_to_various_FA_concentrations_for_3_minutes_and_examined_at_7_days_after_exposure_/726357", "title"=>"Cell survival rate (%) of rabbit corneal epithelial cells exposed to various FA concentrations for 3 minutes and examined at 7 days after exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:45:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1094544"], "description"=>"<p>Grades (Gr) indicated are according to the grading system listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0066649#pone-0066649-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Ocular system", "Biochemistry", "histology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "Signal transduction", "Signaling in cellular processes", "Apoptotic signaling", "Cell growth", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "ophthalmology", "morphology", "corneal", "epithelial", "cells", "exposed", "fa", "concentrations", "minutes", "examined"], "article_id"=>726356, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Li-Ju Lai", "Wei-Hsiu Hsu", "Albert M. Wu", "June H. Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066649.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_morphology_in_rabbit_corneal_epithelial_cells_exposed_to_various_FA_concentrations_for_3_minutes_and_examined_at_one_day_a_and_seven_day_b_after_exposure_/726356", "title"=>"Cell morphology in rabbit corneal epithelial cells exposed to various FA concentrations for 3 minutes and examined at one day (a) and seven day (b) after exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:45:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1094553"], "description"=>"<p>The pERK2 and pJNK indicates phosphorylated ERK2 and phosphorylated JNK, respectively. ERK2 and JNK denote total ERK2 and total JNK, respectively. Actin is used as an internal control. Vertical bar indicates standard deviation of the mean. [*] indicates P<0.05 as compared to the control (0 ppm) group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Ocular system", "Biochemistry", "histology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "Signal transduction", "Signaling in cellular processes", "Apoptotic signaling", "Cell growth", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "ophthalmology", "blots", "graphs", "ratios", "corneal", "epithelial", "cells", "conjunctiva", "explanted", "eyes", "treated", "concentrations", "fa", "minutes", "examined", "months"], "article_id"=>726365, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Li-Ju Lai", "Wei-Hsiu Hsu", "Albert M. Wu", "June H. Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066649.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Western_blots_and_the_bar_graphs_of_ratios_for_ERK2_pERK2_and_JNK_pJNK_in_corneal_epithelial_cells_a_and_conjunctiva_explanted_from_rabbit_eyes_b_treated_with_various_concentrations_0_200_ppm_of_FA_for_5_minutes_in_vivo_and_examined_at_2_months_after_tre/726365", "title"=>"Western blots and the bar graphs of ratios for ERK2/pERK2 and JNK/pJNK in corneal epithelial cells (a) and conjunctiva explanted from rabbit eyes (b) treated with various concentrations (0–200 ppm) of FA for 5 minutes <b><i>in vivo</i></b> and examined at 2 months after treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:46:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1094552"], "description"=>"<p>Vertical bars denote standard deviation of the mean. [*] indicates P<0.05, [**] for P<0.01 and [***] for P<0.001 as compared to the respective control group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Ocular system", "Biochemistry", "histology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "Signal transduction", "Signaling in cellular processes", "Apoptotic signaling", "Cell growth", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "ophthalmology", "zealand", "rabbits", "exposing", "fa", "concentrations", "minutes", "examined", "indicated"], "article_id"=>726364, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Li-Ju Lai", "Wei-Hsiu Hsu", "Albert M. Wu", "June H. Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066649.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schirmer_8217_s_test_measured_in_New_Zealand_rabbits_in_vivo_after_exposing_the_rabbit_eye_to_various_FA_concentrations_0_8211_600_ppm_for_5_minutes_and_examined_at_indicated_time_after_exposure_/726364", "title"=>"Schirmer’s test measured in New Zealand rabbits (in vivo) after exposing the rabbit eye to various FA concentrations (0–600 ppm) for 5 minutes and examined at indicated time after exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:46:04"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1094548"], "description"=>"<p>The rabbit cornea epithelial cells were exposed to various concentrations of FA for 3 minutes and the cell survival rates were evaluated 24 hours after exposure. [*] denotes P<0.05 as compared to the control group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Ocular system", "Biochemistry", "histology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "Signal transduction", "Signaling in cellular processes", "Apoptotic signaling", "Cell growth", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "ophthalmology", "assay", "viability", "colorimetric"], "article_id"=>726360, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Li-Ju Lai", "Wei-Hsiu Hsu", "Albert M. Wu", "June H. Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066649.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MTT_assay_for_cell_viability_by_colorimetric_method_/726360", "title"=>"MTT assay for cell viability by colorimetric method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:46:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1094555"], "description"=>"<p>Grading for cells treated with FMD.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Ocular system", "Biochemistry", "histology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "Signal transduction", "Signaling in cellular processes", "Apoptotic signaling", "Cell growth", "toxicology", "Toxic agents", "ophthalmology", "cells", "treated"], "article_id"=>726367, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Li-Ju Lai", "Wei-Hsiu Hsu", "Albert M. Wu", "June H. Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066649.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grading_for_cells_treated_with_FMD_/726367", "title"=>"Grading for cells treated with FMD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-20 01:46:07"}

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Relative Metric

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