Comparative Biomechanical Modeling of Metatherian and Placental Saber-Tooths: A Different Kind of Bite for an Extreme Pouched Predator
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{"title"=>"Comparative Biomechanical Modeling of Metatherian and Placental Saber-Tooths: A Different Kind of Bite for an Extreme Pouched Predator", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Wroe", "scopus_author_id"=>"35726136500"}, {"first_name"=>"Uphar", "last_name"=>"Chamoli", "scopus_author_id"=>"36670875400"}, {"first_name"=>"William C.H.", "last_name"=>"Parr", "scopus_author_id"=>"36697025000"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip", "last_name"=>"Clausen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005442179"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryan", "last_name"=>"Ridgely", "scopus_author_id"=>"14629484300"}, {"first_name"=>"Lawrence", "last_name"=>"Witmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601970331"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84879477834", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0066888", "pui"=>"369200462", "pmid"=>"23840547", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879477834", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"19407502-a74a-3d08-9287-be8e431c8ef8", "abstract"=>"Questions surrounding the dramatic morphology of saber-tooths, and the presumably deadly purpose to which it was put, have long excited scholarly and popular attention. Among saber-toothed species, the iconic North American placental, Smilodon fatalis, and the bizarre South American sparassodont, Thylacosmilus atrox, represent extreme forms commonly forwarded as examples of convergent evolution. For S. fatalis, some consensus has been reached on the question of killing behaviour, with most researchers accepting the canine-shear bite hypothesis, wherein both head-depressing and jaw closing musculatures played a role in delivery of the fatal bite. However, whether, or to what degree, T. atrox may have applied a similar approach remains an open question. Here we apply a three-dimensional computational approach to examine convergence in mechanical performance between the two species. We find that, in many respects, the placental S. fatalis (a true felid) was more similar to the metatherian T. atrox than to a conical-toothed cat. In modeling of both saber-tooths we found that jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were low, but that simulations invoking neck musculature revealed less cranio-mandibular stress than in a conical-toothed cat. However, our study also revealed differences between the two saber-tooths likely reflected in the modus operandi of the kill. Jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were extremely weak in T. atrox, and its skull was even better-adapted to resist stress induced by head-depressors. Considered together with the fact that the center of the arc described by the canines was closer to the jaw-joint in Smilodon, our results are consistent with both jaw-closing and neck musculature playing a role in prey dispatch for the placental, as has been previously suggested. However, for T. atrox, we conclude that the jaw-adductors probably played no major part in the killing bite. We propose that the metatherian presents a more complete commitment to the already extreme saber-tooth 'lifestyle'.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparative-biomechanical-modeling-metatherian-placental-sabertooths-different-kind-bite-extreme-pou", "reader_count"=>65, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>19}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>19}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102272"], "description"=>"*<p>Muscle forces were back-calculated from FE models that gave the body-mass-scaled bite-force output at canines assuming a 2/3 power relationship. The choice of reference taxon is immaterial in this context and <i>S. fatalis</i> was arbitrarily chosen here. kg = kilograms; N = Newtons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "Musculoskeletal system", "biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "paleobiology", "Zoology", "canine", "bite-force", "vm", "stresses", "regions", "jaw-adductor-driven"], "article_id"=>732480, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen Wroe", "Uphar Chamoli", "William C. H. Parr", "Philip Clausen", "Ryan Ridgely", "Lawrence Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066888.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_mass_adjusted_canine_bite_force_results_and_mean_brick_VM_stresses_for_selected_regions_in_a_jaw_adductor_driven_bite_at_maximum_gape_/732480", "title"=>"Body-mass-adjusted canine bite-force results and mean brick VM stresses for selected regions in a jaw-adductor-driven bite at maximum gape.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:14:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102270"], "description"=>"<p>Von Mises (VM) stress distributions and mean landmark point VM stresses given respectively for (A & D) <i>Smilodon fatalis</i>, (B & E) <i>Thylacosmilus atrox</i>, (C & F) <i>Panthera pardus.</i> MPa = Megapascals. Muscle forces scaled to bite reaction forces predicted on the basis of body mass.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "Musculoskeletal system", "biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "paleobiology", "Zoology", "distributions", "scaled", "driven"], "article_id"=>732478, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen Wroe", "Uphar Chamoli", "William C. H. Parr", "Philip Clausen", "Ryan Ridgely", "Lawrence Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066888.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stress_distributions_in_scaled_models_for_neck_muscle_driven_bites_/732478", "title"=>"Stress distributions in scaled models for neck muscle driven bites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:14:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102266"], "description"=>"<p>Von Mises stress distributions and mean landmark point VM stresses given respectively for (A & D) <i>Smilodon fatalis</i>, (B & E) <i>Thylacosmilus atrox</i>, (C & F) <i>Panthera pardus.</i> MPa = Megapascals. Muscle forces scaled to bite reaction forces predicted on the basis of body mass.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "Musculoskeletal system", "biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "paleobiology", "Zoology", "distributions", "scaled", "adductor", "driven"], "article_id"=>732474, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen Wroe", "Uphar Chamoli", "William C. H. Parr", "Philip Clausen", "Ryan Ridgely", "Lawrence Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066888.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stress_distributions_in_scaled_models_for_jaw_adductor_driven_bites_/732474", "title"=>"Stress distributions in scaled models for jaw adductor driven bites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:14:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102260"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>Smilodon fatalis</i> and (B) <i>Thylacosmilus atrox</i>. The distance of the centre from the jaw joint in <i>Thylacosmilus atrox</i> suggests that considerable translation as well as rotation was involved in the insertion of the canine teeth. Landmark positions shown on <i>Thylacosmilus atrox</i>. (C) lateral and (D) frontal views of right hand side landmarks. Curves shown in colour relate to Landmark point Von Mises mean stresses. Right hand side landmarks only shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "Musculoskeletal system", "biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "paleobiology", "Zoology", "arcs", "canine"], "article_id"=>732468, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen Wroe", "Uphar Chamoli", "William C. H. Parr", "Philip Clausen", "Ryan Ridgely", "Lawrence Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066888.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Centres_of_arcs_described_by_the_upper_canine_teeth_/732468", "title"=>"Centres of arcs described by the upper canine teeth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:14:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102274"], "description"=>"<div><p>Questions surrounding the dramatic morphology of saber-tooths, and the presumably deadly purpose to which it was put, have long excited scholarly and popular attention. Among saber-toothed species, the iconic North American placental, <i>Smilodon fatalis,</i> and the bizarre South American sparassodont, <i>Thylacosmilus atrox</i>, represent extreme forms commonly forwarded as examples of convergent evolution. For <i>S. fatalis</i>, some consensus has been reached on the question of killing behaviour, with most researchers accepting the canine-shear bite hypothesis, wherein both head-depressing and jaw closing musculatures played a role in delivery of the fatal bite. However, whether, or to what degree, <i>T. atrox</i> may have applied a similar approach remains an open question. Here we apply a three-dimensional computational approach to examine convergence in mechanical performance between the two species. We find that, in many respects, the placental <i>S. fatalis</i> (a true felid) was more similar to the metatherian <i>T. atrox</i> than to a conical-toothed cat. In modeling of both saber-tooths we found that jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were low, but that simulations invoking neck musculature revealed less cranio-mandibular stress than in a conical-toothed cat. However, our study also revealed differences between the two saber-tooths likely reflected in the <i>modus operandi</i> of the kill. Jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were extremely weak in <i>T. atrox</i>, and its skull was even better-adapted to resist stress induced by head-depressors. Considered together with the fact that the center of the arc described by the canines was closer to the jaw-joint in <i>Smilodon</i>, our results are consistent with both jaw-closing and neck musculature playing a role in prey dispatch for the placental, as has been previously suggested. However, for <i>T. atrox</i>, we conclude that the jaw-adductors probably played no major part in the killing bite. We propose that the metatherian presents a more complete commitment to the already extreme saber-tooth ‘lifestyle’.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "Musculoskeletal system", "biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "paleobiology", "Zoology", "biomechanical", "modeling", "metatherian", "placental", "pouched"], "article_id"=>732482, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen Wroe", "Uphar Chamoli", "William C. H. Parr", "Philip Clausen", "Ryan Ridgely", "Lawrence Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066888", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_Biomechanical_Modeling_of_Metatherian_and_Placental_Saber_Tooths_A_Different_Kind_of_Bite_for_an_Extreme_Pouched_Predator_/732482", "title"=>"Comparative Biomechanical Modeling of Metatherian and Placental Saber-Tooths: A Different Kind of Bite for an Extreme Pouched Predator", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:14:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102273"], "description"=>"*<p>Muscle forces were back-calculated from FE models that gave the body-mass-scaled bite-force output at the canines assuming a 2/3 power relationship. <i>S. fatalis</i> was arbitrarily used as a reference and head-depressing muscle force used in the model was a hypothetical value. The choice of taxon or value for the reference taxon is immaterial in this context. kg = kilograms; N = Newtons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "Musculoskeletal system", "biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "paleobiology", "Zoology", "bite-force", "vm", "stresses", "regions", "cervical-musculature-driven"], "article_id"=>732481, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen Wroe", "Uphar Chamoli", "William C. H. Parr", "Philip Clausen", "Ryan Ridgely", "Lawrence Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066888.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_mass_scaled_bite_force_results_and_mean_brick_VM_stresses_for_selected_regions_in_for_a_cervical_musculature_driven_bite_/732481", "title"=>"Body-mass-scaled bite-force results and mean brick VM stresses for selected regions in for a cervical-musculature-driven bite.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:14:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1102271"], "description"=>"<p>(A) jaw-adducting muscles in <i>Panthera pardus</i>, (B) head depressing and jaw-adducting muscles in <i>Smilodon fatalis</i>, and (C) head-depressing and jaw-adducting muscles in <i>Thylacosmilus atrox</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "Musculoskeletal system", "biotechnology", "Bioengineering", "Biomedical Engineering", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "paleobiology", "Zoology"], "article_id"=>732479, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen Wroe", "Uphar Chamoli", "William C. H. Parr", "Philip Clausen", "Ryan Ridgely", "Lawrence Witmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066888.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Muscle_simulations_/732479", "title"=>"Muscle simulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-26 09:14:31"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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