Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy
Publication Date
July 10, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Simon P. Oliver, John R. Turner, Klemens Gann, Medel Silvosa, et al
Volume
8
Issue
7
Pages
e67380
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0067380
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23874415
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3707734
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23874415
Web of Science
000321765300008
Scopus
84880034759
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/thresher-sharks-tailslaps-hunting-strategy
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Simon P.", "last_name"=>"Oliver", "scopus_author_id"=>"37028809300"}, {"first_name"=>"John R.", "last_name"=>"Turner", "scopus_author_id"=>"56909237500"}, {"first_name"=>"Klemens", "last_name"=>"Gann", "scopus_author_id"=>"55790542200"}, {"first_name"=>"Medel", "last_name"=>"Silvosa", "scopus_author_id"=>"55790332700"}, {"first_name"=>"Tim", "last_name"=>"D'Urban Jackson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55790134200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "arxiv"=>"z0024", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880034759", "sgr"=>"84880034759", "pui"=>"369294490", "isbn"=>"19326203 (ISSN)", "pmid"=>"23874415", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0067380"}, "id"=>"004c2dac-3203-3cbe-ae73-386a89e0a527", "abstract"=>"The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/thresher-sharks-tailslaps-hunting-strategy", "reader_count"=>132, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>27, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>27, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>5, "Unspecified"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>85, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>85}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>16}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Ecuador"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Thailand"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Australia"=>2, "Chile"=>2, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115796"], "description"=>"<p>For sagittal plane events, three key anatomical parts (a) the tip of the tail, (b) the midpoint of the caudal peduncle, and (c) the tip of the snout were tracked in two dimensions using the posterior base of the pectoral fin as a fixed reference point (x/y intercept  = <i>0</i>). The arc length of a thresher shark's tail-slap is shown in dashed line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "analysing", "kinematics", "thresher", "tail-slap"], "article_id"=>743104, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagram_showing_the_method_used_for_analysing_the_kinematics_of_a_thresher_shark_s_tail_slap_from_a_sequence_of_video_still_images_/743104", "title"=>"Diagram showing the method used for analysing the kinematics of a thresher shark's tail-slap from a sequence of video still images.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115797"], "description"=>"<p>A thresher shark lunged at the bait ball in the horizontal plane (1–3). It then adducted its pectoral fins in a manoeuvre that changed its pitch, promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly and stall its approach (4–6). After adducting its pectoral fins, the shark rotated them laterally in a surge to counter the momentum of its body from precipitating forward (7–10). A rapid and powerful ventro-dorsal peduncular motion drove its tail from its base in a trebuchet catapult motion that terminated overhead in a slap (7–10). The tail-slap occurred with such force that it caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming small bubbles that entrained and grew in size (circled in 9–14). The shark returned its pitch to the horizontal plane in a wind-down recovery (11–14), turned 180°, and proceeded to collect the five sardines it had stunned (15). The center of mass about which the movements associated with the shark's overhead tail-slap occurred, changes in camber and time stamps are shown in white.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "images", "taken", "overhead", "tail-slap", "occurred", "sagittal"], "article_id"=>743105, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_sequence_of_still_images_taken_from_an_overhead_tail_slap_hunting_event_that_occurred_in_the_sagittal_plane_Movie_S1_/743105", "title"=>"A sequence of still images taken from an overhead tail-slap hunting event that occurred in the sagittal plane (Movie S1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115800"], "description"=>"<p>A motion animation (top) represents 1.08 s<sup>−1</sup> of an event which was recorded by handheld underwater video camera on 17 June, 2010. Center inserts profile the key characteristics of the behaviour, while inserts shown in the transvers plane (bottom), were interpreted from other video sequences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "diagram", "thresher", "overhead", "wind-down", "observed", "occurred", "sagittal"], "article_id"=>743108, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behaviour_diagram_of_a_thresher_shark_s_overhead_tail_slap_with_preparation_1_8211_2_strike_3_8211_14_and_wind_down_recovery_15_8211_27_phases_as_observed_from_events_which_occurred_in_the_sagittal_plane_/743108", "title"=>"Behaviour diagram of a thresher shark's overhead tail-slap, with preparation (1–2), strike (3–14) and wind-down recovery (15–27) phases, as observed from events, which occurred in the sagittal plane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115802"], "description"=>"<p>A motion animation (top) represents 3.16 s<sup>−1</sup> of an event that was recorded by handheld underwater video camera 19 August 2010. Inserts show a thresher shark circling and collecting three sardines that were stunned during the strike phase of a successful hunting event.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "diagram", "prey", "observed", "recorded", "sagittal"], "article_id"=>743110, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behaviour_diagram_of_prey_item_collection_phase_as_observed_from_events_that_were_recorded_in_the_sagittal_plane_/743110", "title"=>"Behaviour diagram of prey item collection phase, as observed from events that were recorded in the sagittal plane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115804"], "description"=>"<p>Preparation, strike and wind-down recovery phase durations±their respective standard deviations (SD).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "wind-down", "respective", "deviations"], "article_id"=>743112, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Preparation_strike_and_wind_down_recovery_phase_durations_177_their_respective_standard_deviations_SD_/743112", "title"=>"Preparation, strike and wind-down recovery phase durations±their respective standard deviations (SD).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115806"], "description"=>"<p>A) The movements of the tip of the tail (solid), the caudal peduncle (dotted) and the snout (dashed) were tracked in relation to their relative distances (cm) from the posterior base of the pectoral fin (x/y intercept  = <i>0</i>) at the time they were plotted. B) The biphasic acceleration of the tip of a thresher shark's tail reached its peak at the apex of its trajectory arc. C) The maximum trajectory speeds of a thresher shark's tail were tracked in relation to their relative distances (cm) from the posterior base of the pectoral fin (x/y intercept  = <i>0</i>) at the time they were plotted. The variability in the separation points of preparation (blue); strike (red); and wind-down recovery (green) phases among the six analysed events is shown in grey shading.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "kinematics", "overhead", "observed", "thresher", "recorded", "sagittal"], "article_id"=>743114, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_kinematics_of_an_overhead_tail_slap_as_observed_from_six_thresher_shark_hunting_events_that_were_recorded_in_the_sagittal_plane_/743114", "title"=>"The kinematics of an overhead tail-slap, as observed from six thresher shark hunting events that were recorded in the sagittal plane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115807"], "description"=>"<p>Angles for transverse plane events (n = 2) were measured for preparation (blue); strike (red); and wind-down recovery (green) phases, and are aligned from the point at which the tips of the tail reached their maximum height (x/y intercept  = <i>0</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "adduction", "abduction", "angles", "thresher", "pectoral", "fins", "overhead"], "article_id"=>743115, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_adduction_and_abduction_angles_of_a_thresher_shark_s_pectoral_fins_during_overhead_tail_slaps_/743115", "title"=>"The adduction and abduction angles of a thresher shark's pectoral fins during overhead tail-slaps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115808"], "description"=>"<p>The relative distances (cm) the tip of the tail was from the posterior base of the pectoral fin (x/y intercept  = <i>0</i>) were plotted at intercepts that were standardised for precaudal length. The motion of the trajectory is left to right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "trajectory", "arc", "formed", "thresher", "overhead", "tail-slap", "observed", "recorded", "sagittal"], "article_id"=>743116, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_analysis_of_the_trajectory_arc_that_formed_the_path_of_a_thresher_shark_s_overhead_tail_slap_as_observed_from_six_hunting_events_recorded_in_the_sagittal_plane_/743116", "title"=>"Comparative analysis of the trajectory arc that formed the path of a thresher shark's overhead tail-slap as observed from six hunting events recorded in the sagittal plane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115810"], "description"=>"<p>Speeds are expressed in meters per second (ms<sup>−1</sup>), and are regressed against the caudal fin (CDM) lengths of individual sharks that were observed in the sagittal plane (n = 6).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "tail-slap", "speeds", "thresher"], "article_id"=>743118, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_the_mean_grey_and_maximum_black_tail_slap_speeds_and_the_length_of_a_thresher_shark_s_tail_/743118", "title"=>"Relationship between the mean (grey) and maximum (black) tail-slap speeds and the length of a thresher shark's tail.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115811"], "description"=>"<p>Amplitudes of a thresher shark's caudal fin (black), caudal peduncle (light grey) and snout (dark grey) movements during preparation, strike and wind-down recovery phases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "thresher", "caudal", "fin", "peduncle", "snout", "movements", "wind-down"], "article_id"=>743119, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amplitudes_of_a_thresher_shark_s_caudal_fin_black_caudal_peduncle_light_grey_and_snout_dark_grey_movements_during_preparation_strike_and_wind_down_recovery_phases_/743119", "title"=>"Amplitudes of a thresher shark's caudal fin (black), caudal peduncle (light grey) and snout (dark grey) movements during preparation, strike and wind-down recovery phases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115813"], "description"=>"<p>A motion animation (top) represents 4.86 s<sup>−1</sup> of an event which was recorded by handheld underwater video camera on 14 June, 2010. Center inserts profile the key characteristics of the behaviour, while inserts shown in the transvers plane (bottom), were interpreted from <i>in situ</i> observations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "diagram", "thresher", "sideways", "observed", "sagittal"], "article_id"=>743121, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behaviour_diagram_of_a_thresher_shark_s_sideways_tail_slap_with_preparation_1_2_strike_3_8211_6_and_recovery_7_8211_9_phases_as_observed_in_the_sagittal_plane_/743121", "title"=>"Behaviour diagram of a thresher shark's sideways tail-slap, with preparation (1, 2), strike (3–6) and recovery (7–9) phases, as observed in the sagittal plane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115815"], "description"=>"<p>Lengths were calculated from video images by counting the number of times a referenced sardine could fit lengthwise into the selected length measurements of a thresher shark. Precaudal (PCL), dorsal caudal fin margin (CDM), fork (FL) and total (TL) lengths are presented±their standard deviations. The six sagittal plane events, which were selected for kinematic analysis, are in italics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "16", "pelagic", "thresher", "records", "overhead", "tail-slap", "october"], "article_id"=>743123, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Length_measurements_cm_of_16_pelagic_thresher_sharks_as_determined_from_video_records_of_overhead_tail_slap_hunting_events_June_8211_October_2010_/743123", "title"=>"Length measurements (cm) of 16 pelagic thresher sharks, as determined from video records of overhead tail-slap hunting events (June – October 2010).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115818", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115821", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115822", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115824"], "description"=>"<div><p>The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (<i>Alopias pelagicus</i>) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "sharks", "tail-slaps"], "article_id"=>743126, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>41, "page_views"=>329, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thresher_Sharks_Use_Tail_Slaps_as_a_Hunting_Strategy_/743126", "title"=>"Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115791"], "description"=>"<p>A dense aggregation of sardines <i>Sardonella longiceps</i>, can be observed year round along the northwestern crest of the fringing reef (A) where thresher sharks hunt them.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "pescador"], "article_id"=>743099, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_showing_the_location_of_Pescador_Island_off_Moalboal_Cebu_in_the_Philippines_/743099", "title"=>"Map showing the location of Pescador Island off Moalboal, Cebu, in the Philippines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115795"], "description"=>"<p>Diagram showing a thresher shark's position relative to the bait ball during (A) overhead; and (B) sideways tail-slaps.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Behavioral ecology", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "thresher", "bait", "sideways"], "article_id"=>743103, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon P. Oliver", "John R. Turner", "Klemens Gann", "Medel Silvosa", "Tim D'Urban Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067380.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagram_showing_a_thresher_shark_s_position_relative_to_the_bait_ball_during_A_overhead_and_B_sideways_tail_slaps_/743103", "title"=>"Diagram showing a thresher shark's position relative to the bait ball during (A) overhead; and (B) sideways tail-slaps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 01:38:40"}

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Relative Metric

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