A Two-Minute Paper-and-Pencil Test of Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Numerical Magnitude Processing Explains Variability in Primary School Children's Arithmetic Competence
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{"title"=>"A Two-Minute Paper-and-Pencil Test of Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Numerical Magnitude Processing Explains Variability in Primary School Children's Arithmetic Competence", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nadia", "last_name"=>"Nosworthy", "scopus_author_id"=>"55783275300"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephanie", "last_name"=>"Bugden", "scopus_author_id"=>"36700981400"}, {"first_name"=>"Lisa", "last_name"=>"Archibald", "scopus_author_id"=>"16315150800"}, {"first_name"=>"Barrie", "last_name"=>"Evans", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401634382"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Ansari", "scopus_author_id"=>"23033422400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369253051", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0067918", "sgr"=>"84879773684", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879773684", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23844126"}, "id"=>"8580a12b-1ea3-376c-8f3b-c8000da39fc2", "abstract"=>"Recently, there has been a growing emphasis on basic number processing competencies (such as the ability to judge which of two numbers is larger) and their role in predicting individual differences in school-relevant math achievement. Children's ability to compare both symbolic (e.g. Arabic numerals) and nonsymbolic (e.g. dot arrays) magnitudes has been found to correlate with their math achievement. The available evidence, however, has focused on computerized paradigms, which may not always be suitable for universal, quick application in the classroom. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison are related to children's performance on tests of arithmetic competence and whether either of these factors relate to arithmetic achievement over and above other factors such as working memory and reading ability. In order to address these outstanding issues, we designed a quick (2 minute) paper-and-pencil tool to assess children's ability to compare symbolic and nonsymbolic numerical magnitudes and assessed the degree to which performance on this measure explains individual differences in achievement. Children were required to cross out the larger of two, single-digit numerical magnitudes under time constraints. Results from a group of 160 children from grades 1-3 revealed that both symbolic and nonsymbolic number comparison accuracy were related to individual differences in arithmetic achievement. However, only symbolic number comparison performance accounted for unique variance in arithmetic achievement. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed which include the use of this measure as a possible tool for identifying students at risk for future difficulties in mathematics.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/twominute-paperandpencil-test-symbolic-nonsymbolic-numerical-magnitude-processing-explains-variabili", "reader_count"=>113, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>14, "Mathematics"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>79, "Social Sciences"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>79}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>14}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108933"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> MC – Calculation raw scores; MF - Math Fluency raw scores; Sym – symbolic mean.</p><p>score; Nonsym – nonsymbolic mean score; Overall – overall mean score.</p>*<p><i>p</i><.05.</p>**<p><i>p<</i>.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "correlations", "arithmetic"], "article_id"=>737696, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grade_1_correlations_between_arithmetic_achievement_and_magnitude_comparison_/737696", "title"=>"Grade 1 correlations between arithmetic achievement and magnitude comparison.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108931"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> MC – Calculation raw scores; MF - Math Fluency raw scores; Sym – symbolic mean score; Nonsym – nonsymbolic mean score; Overall – overall mean score.</p>*<p><i>p</i><.05.</p>**<p><i>p<</i>.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "correlations", "arithmetic"], "article_id"=>737694, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grade_3_correlations_between_arithmetic_achievement_and_magnitude_comparison_/737694", "title"=>"Grade 3 correlations between arithmetic achievement and magnitude comparison.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108928"], "description"=>"<p>Scatterplot showing significant correlation between standard scores on the Math Fluency subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson III battery and overall mean score of the magnitude comparison task (symbolic and nonsymbolic combined) for all participants. The solid line represents the linear regression line for this relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "fluency", "scores"], "article_id"=>737691, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_Math_Fluency_scores_and_magnitude_comparison_scores_/737691", "title"=>"Correlation between Math Fluency scores and magnitude comparison scores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108927"], "description"=>"<p>Bar graph representing overall performance of participants in each grade for symbolic and nonsymbolic items. Grade 1 participants were significantly better at nonsymbolic items compared to symbolic items. Participants in grades 2 and 3 did not demonstrate any differences between conditions. Standard errors are represented by the error bars attached to each column.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development"], "article_id"=>737690, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grade_by_format_interaction_/737690", "title"=>"Grade by format interaction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108936"], "description"=>"<p>Numerical pairs and ratios for the numerical comparison task.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "pairs", "ratios", "numerical"], "article_id"=>737699, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Numerical_pairs_and_ratios_for_the_numerical_comparison_task_/737699", "title"=>"Numerical pairs and ratios for the numerical comparison task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108935"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> Symbolic - total correct scores on symbolic items; Nonsymbolic - total correct scores on nonsymbolic items; Math Fluency –scores received on WJ-III; Calculation – scores received on WJ-III; Listening Recall – scores received on AWMA; Counting Recall – scores received on AWMA; Odd-One-Out – scores received on AWMA; Spatial Recall – scores received on AWMA; Vocabulary – scores received on WASI; Block Design – scores received on WASI; Reading Fluency – scores received on WJ-III.</p>1<p>The WASI uses a population mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "deviations"], "article_id"=>737698, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_and_Standard_Deviations_S_D_/737698", "title"=>"Means and Standard Deviations (S.D.).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108930"], "description"=>"*<p><i>p<</i>.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "regression", "predicting", "fluency", "scores", "chronological", "spatial", "nonsymbolic"], "article_id"=>737693, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_regression_analyses_predicting_Math_Fluency_raw_scores_with_chronological_age_Reading_Fluency_visual_spatial_working_memory_verbal_working_memory_IQ_symbolic_scores_and_nonsymbolic_scores_as_predictors_/737693", "title"=>"Linear regression analyses predicting Math Fluency raw scores with chronological age, Reading Fluency, visual spatial working memory, verbal working memory, IQ, symbolic scores and nonsymbolic scores as predictors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108929"], "description"=>"<p>Scatterplot showing significant correlation between standard scores on the Calculation subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson III battery and overall mean score of the magnitude comparison task (symbolic and nonsymbolic combined) for all participants. The solid line represents the linear regression line for this relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "scores"], "article_id"=>737692, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_Calculation_scores_and_magnitude_comparison_scores_/737692", "title"=>"Correlation between Calculation scores and magnitude comparison scores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108934"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> MC - Calculation; MF - Math Fluency; RF - Reading Fluency; OOO – Odd-one-out; SR – spatial recall; LR– Listening recall; CR – Counting recall; Vocab – vocabulary; BD – Block design; Sym – symbolic mean score; Non-sym – nonsymbolic mean score; Overall – overall mean score.</p>*<p><i>p</i><.05.</p>**<p><i>p<</i>.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "correlations", "controlling", "months"], "article_id"=>737697, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Partial_correlations_controlling_for_age_in_months_Gr_1_8211_3_/737697", "title"=>"Partial correlations controlling for age in months (Gr. 1–3).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108932"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> MC – Calculation raw scores; MF - Math Fluency raw scores; Sym – symbolic mean score; Nonsym – nonsymbolic mean score; Overall – overall mean score.</p>*<p><i>p</i><.05.</p>**<p><i>p<</i>.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "correlations", "arithmetic"], "article_id"=>737695, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nadia Nosworthy", "Stephanie Bugden", "Lisa Archibald", "Barrie Evans", "Daniel Ansari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067918.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grade_2_correlations_between_arithmetic_achievement_and_magnitude_comparison_/737695", "title"=>"Grade 2 correlations between arithmetic achievement and magnitude comparison.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:37:08"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[284, 458, 579, 688, 782, 879, 957, 1048, 1126, 1204, 1280, 1357, 1415]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Sociology", "average_usage"=>[310, 523, 656, 780, 900, 1024, 1120, 1219, 1308, 1395, 1468, 1570, 1642]}]}
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