Integrating Circadian Activity and Gene Expression Profiles to Predict Chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii Response to Insecticides
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{"title"=>"Integrating Circadian Activity and Gene Expression Profiles to Predict Chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii Response to Insecticides", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kelly A.", "last_name"=>"Hamby", "scopus_author_id"=>"55228555200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosanna S.", "last_name"=>"Kwok", "scopus_author_id"=>"55786169300"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank G.", "last_name"=>"Zalom", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003495493"}, {"first_name"=>"Joanna C.", "last_name"=>"Chiu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201501670"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23861907", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0068472", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879833816", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369260885", "sgr"=>"84879833816"}, "id"=>"18fed311-a772-3f7b-bf84-4fd6c1cc6bf4", "abstract"=>"Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current D. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related Drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expression can predict chronotoxicity of D. suzukii to insecticides. Locomotor assays were performed under conditions that approximate a typical summer or winter day in Watsonville, California, where D. suzukii was first detected in North America. As expected, daily activity patterns of D. suzukii appeared quite different between 'summer' and 'winter' conditions due to differences in photoperiod and temperature. In the 'summer', D. suzukii assumed a more bimodal activity pattern, with maximum activity occurring at dawn and dusk. In the 'winter', activity was unimodal and restricted to the warmest part of the circadian cycle. Expression analysis of six detoxification genes and acute contact bioassays were performed at multiple circadian times, but only in conditions approximating Watsonville summer, the cropping season, when most insecticide applications occur. Five of the genes tested exhibited rhythmic expression, with the majority showing peak expression at dawn (ZT0, 6am). We observed significant differences in the chronotoxicity of D. suzukii towards malathion, with highest susceptibility at ZT0 (6am), corresponding to peak expression of cytochrome P450s that may be involved in bioactivation of malathion. High activity levels were not found to correlate with high insecticide susceptibility as initially hypothesized. Chronobiology and chronotoxicity of D. suzukii provide valuable insights for monitoring and control efforts, because insect activity as well as insecticide timing and efficacy are crucial considerations for pest management. However, field research is necessary for extrapolation to agricultural settings.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/integrating-circadian-activity-gene-expression-profiles-predict-chronotoxicity-drosophila-suzukii-re-4", "reader_count"=>73, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>55, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>55}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1112798"], "description"=>"<div><p>Native to Southeast Asia, <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> (Matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current <i>D. suzukii</i> management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expression can predict chronotoxicity of <i>D. suzukii</i> to insecticides. Locomotor assays were performed under conditions that approximate a typical summer or winter day in Watsonville, California, where <i>D. suzukii</i> was first detected in North America. As expected, daily activity patterns of <i>D. suzukii</i> appeared quite different between ‘summer’ and ‘winter’ conditions due to differences in photoperiod and temperature. In the ‘summer’, <i>D. suzukii</i> assumed a more bimodal activity pattern, with maximum activity occurring at dawn and dusk. In the ‘winter’, activity was unimodal and restricted to the warmest part of the circadian cycle. Expression analysis of six detoxification genes and acute contact bioassays were performed at multiple circadian times, but only in conditions approximating Watsonville summer, the cropping season, when most insecticide applications occur. Five of the genes tested exhibited rhythmic expression, with the majority showing peak expression at dawn (ZT0, 6am). We observed significant differences in the chronotoxicity of <i>D. suzukii</i> towards malathion, with highest susceptibility at ZT0 (6am), corresponding to peak expression of cytochrome P450s that may be involved in bioactivation of malathion. High activity levels were not found to correlate with high insecticide susceptibility as initially hypothesized. Chronobiology and chronotoxicity of <i>D. suzukii</i> provide valuable insights for monitoring and control efforts, because insect activity as well as insecticide timing and efficacy are crucial considerations for pest management. However, field research is necessary for extrapolation to agricultural settings.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "agrochemicals", "pesticides", "Pest control", "Integrated control", "Sustainable agriculture", "Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "genetics", "gene expression", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "toxicology", "integrating", "circadian", "profiles", "chronotoxicity", "insecticides"], "article_id"=>740734, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kelly A. Hamby", "Rosanna S. Kwok", "Frank G. Zalom", "Joanna C. Chiu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Integrating_Circadian_Activity_and_Gene_Expression_Profiles_to_Predict_Chronotoxicity_of_Drosophila_suzukii_Response_to_Insecticides/740734", "title"=>"Integrating Circadian Activity and Gene Expression Profiles to Predict Chronotoxicity of <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> Response to Insecticides", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-05 01:55:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1112795"], "description"=>"<p>The results from (1) daily locomotor activity assays of <i>D. suzukii</i> females (bar graph in bottom panel); (2) circadian gene expression analysis of <i>Cyp6g1</i> (line graph in top panel, left Y-axis); and (3) malathion acute toxicity assay (bar graph in top panel, right Y-axis), were compiled for side-by-side comparison and correlation. All experiments shown here were conducted in experimental condition simulating an average summer day of Watsonville, CA, U.S. (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone-0068472-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a> and Table S1 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone.0068472.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>). Three levels of light intensity are indicated by the horizontal bars beneath the graph. Black bars = lights off; dark gray bars = dim light; white bars = bright light. Both zeitgeber (ZT) and natural time for changes in light intensity are shown underneath the horizontal bars. For summer conditions: lights-on time (ZT0) and lights-off time (ZT14) is set at 6am and 8pm respectively. Activity data shown here is for female flies and is the same as presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone-0068472-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2B</a>. Circadian expression pattern of <i>Cyp6g1</i> in fly bodies is presented here as a representative pattern for most of the genes tested, and is the same as presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone-0068472-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3B</a>, except with a shift in the X-axis to allow for easier comparison. Malathion acute 1 h LC<sub>50</sub> for female <i>D. suzukii</i> was calculated using normalized variable slope sigmoidal dose response best-fit curves in PRISM v.5.0 (GraphPad Software, Inc.) at 4 time points (ZT0, 6, 12, 20) using 2–3 day old female <i>D. suzukii</i> and 11 doses of malathion, and is plotted using data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone-0068472-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for each LC<sub>50</sub>. The time point with peak malathion tolerance “P”, with trough tolerance “T”, and with the most variable tolerance “V” is marked.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "agrochemicals", "pesticides", "Pest control", "Integrated control", "Sustainable agriculture", "Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "genetics", "gene expression", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "toxicology", "Chronobiology", "malathion", "chronotoxicity"], "article_id"=>740731, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kelly A. Hamby", "Rosanna S. Kwok", "Frank G. Zalom", "Joanna C. Chiu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlating_chronobiology_and_malathion_chronotoxicity_of_Drosophila_suzukii_/740731", "title"=>"Correlating chronobiology and malathion chronotoxicity of <i>Drosophila suzukii.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-05 01:55:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1112794"], "description"=>"<p>Normalized percent mortality (Y-axis) of female <i>D. suzkii</i> exposed to malathion (A,C) and fenpropathrin (B,D) for 1 h (±5min) was assessed at 4 time points (ZT0, 6, 12, 20) for flies entrained to conditions approximating Watsonville, CA, U.S.A. summer (July/August) temperature and light/dark conditions (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone-0068472-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a> and Table S1 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone.0068472.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>) for approximately 50 h prior to exposure. The insecticide dose [expressed in Log(µmol of insecticide active ingredient (AI)/cm<sup>2</sup>) (X-axis)] was prepared from formulated insecticide using acetone as a solvent 1 h prior to the contact experiment and 250 µL was applied to coat the interior of a 20 mL scintillation vial (56.9 cm<sup>2</sup>). Flies were held in pesticide-free diet at Watsonville, CA summer conditions for 72 h (±5min) after exposure when mortality was assessed as a count of dead and moribund flies combined. Points on the graph represent the mean normalized percent mortality exhibited at each Log(Dose) for the female flies assayed (across the three replicate vials) (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone-0068472-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). The points were separated along the x-axis using the “nudging” function in PRISM v.5.0 (GraphPad Software, Inc.) to prevent overlap of the standard error bars (i.e. the standard error of the mean of the normalized percent mortality across the three replicates) (A, B). The variable slope sigmoidal dose response best-fit curves produced in PRISM v.5.0 for malathion are graphed and similarly separated along the x-axis with the points (A), and the single best-fit curved produced for all time points for fenpropathrin was shifted toward the middle of the graph, again using the “nudging” function in PRISM v.5.0 (B). The points and curves are presented without their error bars and without shifting along the x-axis for dose response comparison of malathion (C) and fenpropathrin (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "agrochemicals", "pesticides", "Pest control", "Integrated control", "Sustainable agriculture", "Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "genetics", "gene expression", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "toxicology", "acute"], "article_id"=>740730, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kelly A. Hamby", "Rosanna S. Kwok", "Frank G. Zalom", "Joanna C. Chiu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chronotoxicity_of_female_Drosophila_suzukii_for_acute_contact_exposure_to_insecticides_/740730", "title"=>"Chronotoxicity of female <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> for acute contact exposure to insecticides.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-05 01:55:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1112789"], "description"=>"<p>Incubator settings to mimic a typical summer (July/August) or winter (January/Feburary) day in Watsonville, CA. The two environmental settings are indicated in black (summer) and dark gray (winter) respectively. Zeitgeber time and light intensity are shown on the X-axis for both summer and winter days. Light intensity is classified as bright (both banks of lights on in the incubator); dim (only one out of two banks of lights on); and dark (all lights off). These three levels of light intensity are indicated by the horizontal bars beneath the graph. Black bars = lights off; dark gray bars = dim light; white bar = bright light. Both zeitgeber (ZT) and natural time for changes in light intensity are shown underneath the horizontal bars. Summer: Lights-on time (ZT0) is at 6am and lights-off time (ZT14) is at 8pm. Winter: Lights-on time is at 7am (ZT0) and lights-off time (ZT11) is at 6pm. Temperature fluctuations over the circadian day are indicated on the Y-axis. The temperature ranges for summer and winter simulations are 12.2°C to 22.2°C and 6.8°C to 16.7°C respectively. Due to the low survivorship of <i>D. suzukii</i> flies at low <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone.0068472-Dalton1\" target=\"_blank\">[57]</a>, the lowest temperature for the winter day is set at 6.8°C. On average, winter nights can go down to 4°C. Peak temperature of 22.2°C in the summer occurs between 2pm (ZT8) and 3:30pm (ZT9.5). Peak temperature of 16.7°C in the winter occurs between 2pm (ZT7) and 3:30pm (ZT8.5).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "agrochemicals", "pesticides", "Pest control", "Integrated control", "Sustainable agriculture", "Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "genetics", "gene expression", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "toxicology", "incubator", "programs", "approximate"], "article_id"=>740725, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kelly A. Hamby", "Rosanna S. Kwok", "Frank G. Zalom", "Joanna C. Chiu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percival_biological_incubator_programs_to_approximate_Watsonville_CA_U_S_A_environmental_conditions_/740725", "title"=>"Percival biological incubator programs to approximate Watsonville, CA, U.S.A. environmental conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-05 01:55:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1112797"], "description"=>"<p>Total female <i>D. suzukii</i> dosed for each insecticide (field rate of active ingredient (AI)) at each vial concentration (µmol AI/cm<sup>2</sup>), Zeitgeber time point, and replicate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "agrochemicals", "pesticides", "Pest control", "Integrated control", "Sustainable agriculture", "Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "genetics", "gene expression", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "toxicology", "dosed", "insecticide", "vial", "zeitgeber"], "article_id"=>740733, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kelly A. Hamby", "Rosanna S. Kwok", "Frank G. Zalom", "Joanna C. Chiu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_female_D_suzukii_dosed_for_each_insecticide_field_rate_of_active_ingredient_AI_at_each_vial_concentration_mol_AI_cm_2_Zeitgeber_time_point_and_replicate_/740733", "title"=>"Total female <i>D. suzukii</i> dosed for each insecticide (field rate of active ingredient (AI)) at each vial concentration (µmol AI/cm<sup>2</sup>), Zeitgeber time point, and replicate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-05 01:55:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1112796"], "description"=>"a<p>H<sub>0</sub> 2 parameters (Slope and LC<sub>50</sub>) same for all data sets; <i>F</i><sub>6,124</sub> = 3.52, <i>P</i> = 0.0030.</p>b<p>H<sub>0</sub> 2 parameters (Slope and LC<sub>50</sub>) same for all data sets; <i>F</i><sub>6,136</sub> = 2.04, <i>P</i> = 0.0644.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "agrochemicals", "pesticides", "Pest control", "Integrated control", "Sustainable agriculture", "Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "genetics", "gene expression", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "toxicology", "sigmoidal", "insecticide", "zeitgeber", "points", "pooled", "days", "replicate"], "article_id"=>740732, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kelly A. Hamby", "Rosanna S. Kwok", "Frank G. Zalom", "Joanna C. Chiu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normalized_variable_slope_sigmoidal_dose_response_curve_fit_slope_and_LC_50_values_181_mol_active_ingredient_AI_cm_2_for_each_insecticide_at_different_Zeitgeber_time_points_N_data_pooled_across_treatment_days_to_each_replicate_vial_/740732", "title"=>"Normalized variable slope sigmoidal dose response curve fit, slope, and LC<sub>50</sub> values (µmol active ingredient (AI)/cm<sup>2</sup><b>)</b> for each insecticide at different Zeitgeber time points (N = data pooled across treatment days to each replicate vial).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-05 01:55:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1112792"], "description"=>"<p>Transcript levels for three cytochrome P450 genes (A, B, C), two glutathione S-transferases (D and E), and an <i>α-esterase 7</i> (F) were assayed. RNA was extracted from a mixed population of adult male and female flies that were subjected to entrainment conditions approximating Watsonville, CA, U.S. summer (July/August) temperature and light/dark conditions (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone-0068472-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a> and Table S1 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone.0068472.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>) for three days, and collected via freezing with dry ice on the fourth day. Flies were collected at 6 time points (ZT0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20) throughout the circadian day, as indicated on the X-axis. ZT0, which is equal to 6am, is also plotted as ZT24 to represent both the beginning and the end of a circadian day. Horizontal bars beneath the X-axis show the light conditions present during the corresponding time of day. Black bars = lights off; dark gray bars = dim light; white bars = bright light (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone-0068472-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a> and Table S1 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone.0068472.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>). Relative levels of mRNA were quantified by real-time PCR and normalized to <i>Cbp20</i> expression. Graphs are scaled with the time of highest gene expression set to 1. Each point represents the average of three biological replicates (n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "agrochemicals", "pesticides", "Pest control", "Integrated control", "Sustainable agriculture", "Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "genetics", "gene expression", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "toxicology", "mrna", "profiles", "classes", "detoxification"], "article_id"=>740728, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kelly A. Hamby", "Rosanna S. Kwok", "Frank G. Zalom", "Joanna C. Chiu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Daily_mRNA_expression_profiles_of_three_classes_of_detoxification_genes_/740728", "title"=>"Daily mRNA expression profiles of three classes of detoxification genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-05 01:55:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1112790"], "description"=>"<p>Male (A and C) and virgin female (B and D) flies were subjected to temperature and light/dark cycles that simulate a typical summer (July/August) (A and B) or winter (January/February) (C and D) day in Watsonville, CA, U.S. The specific conditions for the simulation are detailed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone-0068472-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a> and Table S1 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone.0068472.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>. They were kept under these conditions for at least seven days, and their activity levels were recorded using <i>Drosophila</i> Activity Monitoring System (DAMS) (Trikinetics, Inc.). The flies were around three days old at the start of the experiments. The locomotor activity levels of individual flies were measured in 15 min bins and then averaged to obtain a representative group profile, as illustrated in eduction graphs generated using FaasX. The activity level is represented by raw activity counts (X-axis) as measured by DAMS <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472#pone.0068472-Chiu1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>. Data shown here resulted from averaging the second to the fourth days of the recordings, generating the 24 h profiles shown in the panels. Vertical bars represent the activity recorded in 15 min bins during times when the lights were on (light gray bars) or off (black bars). Three levels of light intensity are indicated by the horizontal bars beneath the graphs. Black bars = lights off; dark gray bars = dim light; white bars = bright light. Both zeitgeber (ZT) and natural time for changes in light intensity are shown underneath the horizontal bars. For summer conditions: lights-on time (ZT0) and lights-off time (ZT14) is set at 6am and 8pm respectively. The period representing peak summer temperature, 22.2°C between 2pm to 3:30pm, is denoted by the letter “P”; the time point at which temperature reaches the trough, 12.2°C at 4am, is marked by an arrow labeled “T”; and the time point at which temperature starts to rise from the trough, at 4:30am, is marked by an arrow labeled “R”. For winter conditions: lights-on time (ZT0) and lights-off time (ZT11) is set at 7am and 6pm respectively. The period representing peak winter temperature, 16.7°C between 2pm to 3:30pm, is denoted by the letter “P”; the time point at which temperature reaches the trough, 6.8°C at 11pm, is marked by an arrow labeled “T”; and the point at which temperature starts to rise from the trough, 6.8°C at 9am, is marked by an arrow labeled “R”. 64 flies were used for each treatment at the start of the experiment. Taking into account the mortality of flies during the course of the experiment, sample sizes are as follows: Male (summer) n = 59 (92% survival); Female (summer) n = 54 (84% survival); Male (winter) n = 45 (70% survival); Female (winter) n = 21 (32% survival).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural biotechnology", "agrochemicals", "pesticides", "Pest control", "Integrated control", "Sustainable agriculture", "Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "genetics", "gene expression", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Molecular cell biology", "toxicology", "locomotor", "profiles", "flies"], "article_id"=>740726, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kelly A. Hamby", "Rosanna S. Kwok", "Frank G. Zalom", "Joanna C. Chiu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068472.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Daily_locomotor_activity_profiles_of_Drosophila_suzukii_male_and_female_flies_in_different_seasons_/740726", "title"=>"Daily locomotor activity profiles of <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> male and female flies in different seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-05 01:55:35"}

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Relative Metric

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