One Small Step for Rhinos, One Giant Leap for Wildlife Management- Imaging Diagnosis of Bone Pathology in Distal Limb
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{"title"=>"One Small Step for Rhinos, One Giant Leap for Wildlife Management- Imaging Diagnosis of Bone Pathology in Distal Limb", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gabriela", "last_name"=>"Galateanu", "scopus_author_id"=>"53877382100"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas B.", "last_name"=>"Hildebrandt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005269039"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexis", "last_name"=>"Maillot", "scopus_author_id"=>"55787849800"}, {"first_name"=>"Pascal", "last_name"=>"Etienne", "scopus_author_id"=>"55788340200"}, {"first_name"=>"Romain", "last_name"=>"Potier", "scopus_author_id"=>"55331609100"}, {"first_name"=>"Baptiste", "last_name"=>"Mulot", "scopus_author_id"=>"54998249200"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Saragusty", "scopus_author_id"=>"8872923900"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Hermes", "scopus_author_id"=>"24484508600"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879936628", "sgr"=>"84879936628", "pui"=>"369287170", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23874643", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0068493"}, "id"=>"e071748a-72af-3e0a-8090-190f84862b4b", "abstract"=>"Chronic foot disease poses a threat to the general health, represents a tremendous clinical challenge, and often is a reason for euthanasia in captive megaherbivores, among them the elephant and rhinoceros. Nevertheless, apart from the elephant, foot pathology is handled as being confined only to soft tissues whereas bone pathology is often overlooked. As a case in point, the authors selected the second largest mammal on land, the rhinoceros. We performed a computed tomographic (CT) study using the highest resolution available in veterinary world, followed by digital radiography of eight distal limbs from two white and one Indian rhinoceroses. Our study demonstrated that bone pathology in rhinoceroses' foot is present and in large numbers, yet none of these were diagnosed ante mortem. Even when the animals were euthanized due to foot problems, the decision was based on soft tissue pathology rather than orthopedic reasons. Even more worrying is the fact that the largest number of osteopathologies was present in one of the white rhinoceroses that showed no discernable related clinical signs. This study describes for the first time the existence of bone pathology in white rhinoceros foot, in addition to the two previously described rhinoceros species--Indian and black rhinoceroses. Furthermore, the chronic foot disease reported for the Indian rhinoceros in our study was not restricted to soft tissue structures as was presumed ante mortem but included severe bone pathology. New evidence suggesting that osteopathology in rhinoceroses' distal limb is more widespread than it was thought before could force us to rethink of radiographic diagnosis in captive megaherbivores as routine examination incorporated into their health management. The anticipated improvements in radiologic examinations in megaherbivores will increase the effectiveness of their management and husbandry and open the way for improved animal welfare and better wildlife conservation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/one-small-step-rhinos-one-giant-leap-wildlife-management-imaging-diagnosis-bone-pathology-distal-lim", "reader_count"=>16, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115147"], "description"=>"<p>Chart representing the most frequent osteopathologies encountered in each rhinoceros and all three together.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal welfare", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary pathology", "types", "pathologies", "studied"], "article_id"=>742561, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriela Galateanu", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Alexis Maillot", "Pascal Etienne", "Romain Potier", "Baptiste Mulot", "Joseph Saragusty", "Robert Hermes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068493.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Main_types_of_bone_pathologies_and_their_distribution_in_studied_rhinoceroses_/742561", "title"=>"Main types of bone pathologies and their distribution in studied rhinoceroses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-09 02:58:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115149"], "description"=>"<p>Graphic numerical representation of the pathological bone sites (vertical axis) found in each autopodial element (horizontal axis). For podial elements (carpal and tarsal bones), the number of osteopathologies per bone was small and therefore we included the carpal (n = 7) and, respectively, tarsal (n = 8) joint as one unit. The data was collected from all four hind legs (“Hindleg”) and from all four front legs (“Frontleg”), therefore, for example, “Ph I-DII” of “Hindleg” represents the first phalanx of the second digit in all four hind legs. Abbreviations: Mt-metatarsal, Mc-metacarpal, S-large sesamoids, Ph-phalanx, D-digit, s-small sesamoids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal welfare", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary pathology", "pathologies"], "article_id"=>742562, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriela Galateanu", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Alexis Maillot", "Pascal Etienne", "Romain Potier", "Baptiste Mulot", "Joseph Saragusty", "Robert Hermes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068493.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_bone_pathologies_in_rhinoceroses_8217_autopodium_/742562", "title"=>"Distribution of bone pathologies in rhinoceroses’ autopodium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-09 02:58:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115151"], "description"=>"<p>Computed tomographic images of different types of fractures: <i>concealed fractures</i>, characterized by new bone production overlying the fracture line, concealing it; <i>transverse fractures</i>, complete, occurring perpendicular on the long axis of the bone; <i>comminuted fractures</i>, with minimum three bone fragments and connected fracture lines; <i>avulsion fractures</i>, separation of small fragments of bone due to traction by soft tissue attachment; <i>segmental fractures</i>, many separate fracture lines in a single bone; <i>multiple fractures</i>, fractures affecting different bones.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal welfare", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary pathology"], "article_id"=>742563, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriela Galateanu", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Alexis Maillot", "Pascal Etienne", "Romain Potier", "Baptiste Mulot", "Joseph Saragusty", "Robert Hermes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068493.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Types_of_fractures_/742563", "title"=>"Types of fractures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-09 02:58:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115153"], "description"=>"<p>Tridimensional computed tomographic reconstruction of the left tarsal joint with oblique multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) showing minimally displaced, multiple fractures of the left CTB situated in different planes (arrows). First line of fracture (A) descends in proximo-plantar to distalo-dorsal direction (large arrows), ending at the junction between CTB, first tarsal bone (T I) and second tarsal bone (T II). The second line of fracture (B) is oriented from dorsal to plantar surfaces, in proximo-medial to distalo-plantar direction, reaching the midline of the proximal articular surface of T I with CTB (small arrows). At the level of these fractures, CTB distalo-medial aspect reveals a mixed pattern of trabecular focal bone loss (osteolysis) and cortical osteogenesis represented by massive, unstructured new bone production and remodelling, with a beak-like formation oriented plantaro-medially, hook-shaped in axial plane. Additionally, the articular surface between CTB and TI is highly irregular, characterized by decreased joint space width, articular bone proliferation that bridges the contiguous bones (ankylosis), erosion and lysis of the articular cartilage and underlying bone (asterisk).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal welfare", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary pathology", "tarsal", "fractures", "rhinoceros"], "article_id"=>742564, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriela Galateanu", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Alexis Maillot", "Pascal Etienne", "Romain Potier", "Baptiste Mulot", "Joseph Saragusty", "Robert Hermes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068493.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>75, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_central_tarsal_bone_CTB_fractures_in_rhinoceros_1_/742564", "title"=>"Left central tarsal bone (CTB) fractures in rhinoceros 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-09 02:58:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115157"], "description"=>"<p>Computed tomographic tridimensional (A–C) images: (A) autopodium, medio-dorsal aspect; (B) second metacarpal bone, latero-palmar aspect; (C) autopodium, latero-palmar aspect. Second metacarpal bone (Mc II) exhibits amorphous periosteal reaction adjunct to severe remodelling of the distal epiphysis and metaphysis, associated with underlying cortical lysis prolonged in a proximal direction to the mid-diaphysis, where the cortex is irregularly thinned (long, double headed arrows). Cortical bone proliferation, periosteal reaction, and severe remodelling are also present on the neighbouring sesamoidal (S) bones (fused, with bridging bony spurs) and phalanges (Ph) I, II, III of the second digit (D II), (simple and double headed short arrows). The second phalanx and the paired sesamoids of the fourth digit (D IV) express moderate cortical remodelling, in contrast with the first phalanx where the cortical lysis (mainly dorsal) and bone remodelling are extensive, accompanied by multiple, bony fragments (curved arrows). Mineralized body (C-rectangle) and bone fragments (B-circle) are evident.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal welfare", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary pathology", "pathology", "distal", "rhinoceros"], "article_id"=>742568, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriela Galateanu", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Alexis Maillot", "Pascal Etienne", "Romain Potier", "Baptiste Mulot", "Joseph Saragusty", "Robert Hermes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068493.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>128, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bone_pathology_of_the_distal_right_front_limb_in_rhinoceros_2_/742568", "title"=>"Bone pathology of the distal right front limb in rhinoceros 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-09 02:58:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115163"], "description"=>"<p>Dorsal aspect of the distal autopodium (A) and close-up computed tomographic images of distal phalanges (Ph) from lateral (D IV) digit (B), middle (D III) digit (C) and medial (D II) digit (D) showed multiple osteopathologies. Distal phalanges (Ph III) of each digit present fractures (large arrows) characterized as follows: medial digit (D II) – complete, with dorso-distal triangular fractured fragment of bone; central digit (D III) - severe, comminuted fracture of the lateral palmar process, with two main fragments (20×30×10 mm and 10×20×10 mm) accompanied by callus formation and also severe fracture of the medial palmar process with one fragment; lateral digit (D IV) - chip fracture of the distal part of lateral palmar process. Other pathologic changes observed on D IV include: small mineralized body (2 mm diameter, A, B-rectangle) between the first phalanx (Ph I) and the second phalanx (Ph II); two medium sized osseous bodies (10 mm length, A, B-circle) situated dorso-proximally to Ph II; dorso-medial amorphous periosteal reaction on the proximal half of Ph II; moderate bone remodelling of Ph I and Ph II (small arrows). The small sesamoid (s) of D III is intact.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal welfare", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary pathology", "pathology", "distal", "rhinoceros"], "article_id"=>742574, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriela Galateanu", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Alexis Maillot", "Pascal Etienne", "Romain Potier", "Baptiste Mulot", "Joseph Saragusty", "Robert Hermes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068493.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>183, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bone_pathology_of_the_distal_right_front_limb_in_rhinoceros_3_/742574", "title"=>"Bone pathology of the distal right front limb in rhinoceros 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-09 02:58:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115164"], "description"=>"<p>Computed tomographic tridimensional images of the distal autopodium, dorsal aspect (A) and the correspondent digital radiographic images, palmaro-dorsal view (B). The third or middle digit (D III) presents fractures on all three phalanges: the first phalanx (Ph I) - chip fracture with a small fragment (4.7 mm diameter) on the dorso-lateral aspect (A, B- small arrows); the second phalanx (Ph II) - dorso-lateral fracture with a displaced fragment (18,3×14,4×12,1 mm, A, B-circles); the third phalanx (Ph III) - chip fracture of the medial palmar process (processus palmaris medialis, A, B- large arrows).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal welfare", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary pathology", "pathology", "distal", "rhinoceros"], "article_id"=>742575, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriela Galateanu", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Alexis Maillot", "Pascal Etienne", "Romain Potier", "Baptiste Mulot", "Joseph Saragusty", "Robert Hermes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068493.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>66, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bone_pathology_of_the_distal_left_front_limb_in_rhinoceros_3_/742575", "title"=>"Bone pathology of the distal left front limb in rhinoceros 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-09 02:58:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1115166"], "description"=>"<p>WR 1- white rhinoceros 1, WR 2- white rhinoceros 2; IR- Indian rhinoceros, FR-front right, FL-front left, HR-hind right, HL-hind left autopodium, R-radial carpal bone, I-intermediate carpal bone, U-ulnar carpal bone, Ta-talus, Ca-Calcaneus, CTB-central tarsal bone, T I-first tarsal bone, Mc-metacarpal bone, Mt-metatarsal bone, D-digit, Ph-phalanx, S-large or proximal sesamoids. The lesions visible on digital radiographs are underlined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal welfare", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary pathology", "pathologies"], "article_id"=>742577, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriela Galateanu", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Alexis Maillot", "Pascal Etienne", "Romain Potier", "Baptiste Mulot", "Joseph Saragusty", "Robert Hermes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068493.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bone_pathologies_in_three_rhinoceroses_/742577", "title"=>"Bone pathologies in three rhinoceroses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-09 02:58:58"}

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Relative Metric

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