The Influence of Environmental Variables on the Presence of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at Two Popular Cape Town Bathing Beaches: A Generalized Additive Mixed Model
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{"title"=>"The Influence of Environmental Variables on the Presence of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at Two Popular Cape Town Bathing Beaches: A Generalized Additive Mixed Model", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kay", "last_name"=>"Weltz", "scopus_author_id"=>"55799512300"}, {"first_name"=>"Alison A.", "last_name"=>"Kock", "scopus_author_id"=>"16645873000"}, {"first_name"=>"Henning", "last_name"=>"Winker", "scopus_author_id"=>"23971522200"}, {"first_name"=>"Colin", "last_name"=>"Attwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701753844"}, {"first_name"=>"Monwabisi", "last_name"=>"Sikweyiya", "scopus_author_id"=>"55800101300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880467160", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0068554", "sgr"=>"84880467160", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23874668", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369369124"}, "id"=>"aa33ff1c-57ea-331e-957d-dc11dee8e37a", "abstract"=>"Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/influence-environmental-variables-presence-white-sharks-carcharodon-carcharias-two-popular-cape-town", "reader_count"=>75, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>4, "Mexico"=>1, "Israel"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Relative Metric

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