An Ochered Fossil Marine Shell From the Mousterian of Fumane Cave, Italy
Publication Date
July 10, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Marco Peresani, Marian Vanhaeren, Ermanno Quaggiotto, Alain Queffelec, et al
Volume
8
Issue
7
Pages
e68572
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0068572
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23874677
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3707824
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23874677
Web of Science
000321765300054
Scopus
84880004773
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/ochered-fossil-marine-shell-mousterian-fumane-cave-italy
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"An Ochered Fossil Marine Shell From the Mousterian of Fumane Cave, Italy", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marco", "last_name"=>"Peresani", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801552498"}, {"first_name"=>"Marian", "last_name"=>"Vanhaeren", "scopus_author_id"=>"55902894700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ermanno", "last_name"=>"Quaggiotto", "scopus_author_id"=>"55790236400"}, {"first_name"=>"Alain", "last_name"=>"Queffelec", "scopus_author_id"=>"36476613000"}, {"first_name"=>"Francesco", "last_name"=>"d'Errico", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006208824"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880004773", "sgr"=>"84880004773", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0068572", "pmid"=>"23874677", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"369294510"}, "id"=>"0ea5be8b-1e2a-3c7b-b1e5-97aa71235842", "abstract"=>"A scanty but varied ensemble of finds challenges the idea that Neandertal material culture was essentially static and did not include symbolic items. In this study we report on a fragmentary Miocene-Pliocene fossil marine shell, Aspamarginata, discovered in a Discoid Mousterian layer of the Fumane Cave, northern Italy, dated to at least 47.6-45.0 Cal ky BP. The shell was collected by Neandertals at a fossil exposure probably located more than 100 kms from the site. Microscopic analysis of the shell surface identifies clusters of striations on the inner lip. A dark red substance, trapped inside micropits produced by bioeroders, is interpreted as pigment that was homogeneously smeared on the outer shell surface. Dispersive X-ray and Raman analysis identify the pigment as pure hematite. Of the four hypotheses we considered to explain the presence of this object at the site, two (tool, pigment container) are discarded because in contradiction with observations. Although the other two (\"manuport\", personal ornament) are both possible, we favor the hypothesis that the object was modified and suspended by a 'thread' for visual display as a pendant. Together with contextual and chronometric data, our results support the hypothesis that deliberate transport and coloring of an exotic object, and perhaps its use as pendant, was a component of Neandertal symbolic culture, well before the earliest appearance of the anatomically modern humans in Europe.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ochered-fossil-marine-shell-mousterian-fumane-cave-italy", "reader_count"=>90, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Arts and Humanities"=>44, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>13, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>13}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>44}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116240"], "description"=>"<p>Cassina Rizzardi in the Lombardy Pre-Alps (1); Miocene and Pliocene exposures south of the Po Valley (2) (by <a href=\"http://www.visibleearth.nasa.gov\" target=\"_blank\">www.visibleearth.nasa.gov</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fumane", "fossil", "exposures"], "article_id"=>743470, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_Fumane_cave_FU_and_of_fossil_exposures_with_Aspa_marginata_shells_/743470", "title"=>"Location of Fumane cave (FU) and of fossil exposures with <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> shells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116242"], "description"=>"<p>Stratigraphy of the Fumane Cave sequence in squares 137-147.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fumane", "squares"], "article_id"=>743472, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stratigraphy_of_the_Fumane_Cave_sequence_in_squares_137_147_/743472", "title"=>"Stratigraphy of the Fumane Cave sequence in squares 137-147.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116245"], "description"=>"<p>The broken <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> shell (a) from the Mousterian stratigraphic Unit A9 of Fumane Cave and three complete natural fossil shells (b–d) of the same species from Pliocene deposits close to Asti, Piemonte region, Italy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>743475, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aspa_marginata_shells_/743475", "title"=>"<i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> shells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116247"], "description"=>"<p>Estimation (gray symbols) of the original height (H) and width (W) have been obtained by correlating the diameter of the last body whorl suture (DS) with the height (black squares) and width (black dots) of three fossil specimens from Pliocene deposits close to Asti, Piemonte region.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>743477, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimation_of_the_original_size_of_the_broken_Aspa_marginata_from_Fumane_/743477", "title"=>"Estimation of the original size of the broken <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> from Fumane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116257"], "description"=>"<p>Above, location of the micrographs (a–c) taken on the Fumane <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i>; d-e: inner lips of two <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> from Pliocene deposits close to Asti, Piemonte region. Notice in <i>b</i> the palympsest of striations present on the inner lip of the archaeological specimen. Scales = 100 µm unless indicated otherwise.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>743487, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_the_surface_of_Aspa_marginata_shells_/743487", "title"=>"Details of the surface of <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> shells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116269"], "description"=>"<p>Notice the presence on both shells of pits produced by bioeroders associated, at Fumane, with networks of micro-grooves (c) due to the same taphonomic agent. All micro-concavities on the Fumane specimen (b–f), including pits truncated by the shell fracture (d) are filled with a red substance and prominent areas are affected by a slight polish (e–f).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fumane", "specimen"], "article_id"=>743499, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Outer_surface_of_an_Aspa_marginata_shell_from_the_reference_collection_a_and_from_the_Fumane_specimen_b_f_/743499", "title"=>"Outer surface of an <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> shell from the reference collection (a, and from the Fumane specimen (b–f).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116272"], "description"=>"<p>Micrographs have been obtained in secondary (a, c, d) and back-scattered electron detector mode (b) of a micropit filled with red substance on the Fumane <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> shell (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electron", "microscope"], "article_id"=>743502, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scanning_Electron_Microscope_micrographs_/743502", "title"=>"Scanning Electron Microscope micrographs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116275"], "description"=>"<p>a: outer shell surface, b: broken crystals on the edge of the micropit shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572#pone-0068572-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7d</a>, c: red substance filling the pit (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572#pone-0068572-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7c</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dispersive", "x-ray", "performed", "fumane"], "article_id"=>743505, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_Energy_Dispersive_X_ray_analysis_performed_on_the_Fumane_Aspa_marginata_shell_/743505", "title"=>"Results of the Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis performed on the Fumane <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> shell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116276"], "description"=>"<p>Raman spectra of the red substance trapped in two different pits on the surface of the Fumane <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i> shell (a, b) and reference spectra for hematite (c, d, e) from the Rruff database [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572#B99\" target=\"_blank\">99</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raman"], "article_id"=>743506, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_Raman_spectra_/743506", "title"=>"Comparison of Raman spectra.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116278", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116279", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116281", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1116283"], "description"=>"<div><p>A scanty but varied ensemble of finds challenges the idea that Neandertal material culture was essentially static and did not include symbolic items. In this study we report on a fragmentary Miocene-Pliocene fossil marine shell, <i>Aspa</i><i>marginata</i>, discovered in a Discoid Mousterian layer of the Fumane Cave, northern Italy, dated to at least 47.6-45.0 Cal ky BP. The shell was collected by Neandertals at a fossil exposure probably located more than 100 kms from the site. Microscopic analysis of the shell surface identifies clusters of striations on the inner lip. A dark red substance, trapped inside micropits produced by bioeroders, is interpreted as pigment that was homogeneously smeared on the outer shell surface. Dispersive X-ray and Raman analysis identify the pigment as pure hematite. Of the four hypotheses we considered to explain the presence of this object at the site, two (tool, pigment container) are discarded because in contradiction with observations. Although the other two (“manuport”, personal ornament) are both possible, we favor the hypothesis that the object was modified and suspended by a ‘thread’ for visual display as a pendant. Together with contextual and chronometric data, our results support the hypothesis that deliberate transport and coloring of an exotic object, and perhaps its use as pendant, was a component of Neandertal symbolic culture, well before the earliest appearance of the anatomically modern humans in Europe.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ochered", "fossil", "mousterian", "fumane"], "article_id"=>743508, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Marco Peresani", "Marian Vanhaeren", "Ermanno Quaggiotto", "Alain Queffelec", "Francesco d’Errico"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068572.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_Ochered_Fossil_Marine_Shell_From_the_Mousterian_of_Fumane_Cave_Italy_/743508", "title"=>"An Ochered Fossil Marine Shell From the Mousterian of Fumane Cave, Italy", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-07-10 02:31:28"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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