Distributions of Cranial Pathologies Provide Evidence for Head-Butting in Dome-Headed Dinosaurs (Pachycephalosauridae)
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Distributions of Cranial Pathologies Provide Evidence for Head-Butting in Dome-Headed Dinosaurs (Pachycephalosauridae)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joseph E.", "last_name"=>"Peterson", "scopus_author_id"=>"13404877500"}, {"first_name"=>"Collin", "last_name"=>"Dischler", "scopus_author_id"=>"55799514600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas R.", "last_name"=>"Longrich", "scopus_author_id"=>"13806457100"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84880504433", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0068620", "pui"=>"369369129", "pmid"=>"23874691", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880504433", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"0266efe2-bbf9-3d3c-92e5-920c4e63f404", "abstract"=>"Pachycephalosaurids are small, herbivorous dinosaurs with domed skulls formed by massive thickening of the cranial roof. The function of the dome has been a focus of debate: the dome has variously been interpreted as the product of sexual selection, as an adaptation for species recognition, or as a weapon employed in intraspecific combat, where it was used in butting matches as in extant ungulates. This last hypothesis is supported by the recent identification of cranial pathologies in pachycephalosaurids, which appear to represent infections resulting from trauma. However, the frequency and distribution of pathologies have not been studied in a systematic fashion. Here, we show that pachycephalosaurids are characterized by a remarkably high incidence of cranial injury, where 22% of specimens have lesions on the dome. Frequency of injury shows no significant difference between different genera, but flat-headed morphs (here interpreted as juveniles or females) lack lesions. Mapping of injuries onto a digitial pachycephalosaurid skull shows that although lesions are distributed across the dome, they cluster near the apex, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the dome functioned for intraspecific butting matches.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/distributions-cranial-pathologies-provide-evidence-headbutting-domeheaded-dinosaurs-pachycephalosaur", "reader_count"=>29, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84880504433"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84880504433?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84880504433&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84880504433&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84880504433", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84880504433", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84880504433", "dc:title"=>"Distributions of Cranial Pathologies Provide Evidence for Head-Butting in Dome-Headed Dinosaurs (Pachycephalosauridae)", "dc:creator"=>"Peterson J.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"7", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-07-16", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"16 July 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0068620", "citedby-count"=>"8", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Wisconsin Oshkosh", "affiliation-city"=>"Oshkosh", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23874691", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e68620", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0068620", "share_count"=>3, "like_count"=>15, "comment_count"=>1, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>19}

Twitter

Wikipedia | Further Information

Counter

  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"239", "xml_views"=>"22", "html_views"=>"1901"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"702"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"176"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"244"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"94", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"633"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"220"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"212"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"243"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"221"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"193"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"141"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"169"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"115"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"82"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"120"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"168"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119508"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>Bison</i>-like head-shoving in large, broad-domed specimens such as <i>Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis;</i> (B) <i>Ovis</i>-like clashing in <i>Prenocephale prenes</i>; (C) <i>Capra</i>-style broadside butting in high-domed and large-horned specimens such as subadult <i>Pachycephalosaurus</i> (“<i>Stygimoloch</i>” and “<i>Dracorex</i>”).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "head-to-head", "interactions"], "article_id"=>745933, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothetical_head_to_head_interactions_among_pachycephalosaurids_/745933", "title"=>"Hypothetical head-to-head interactions among pachycephalosaurids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119472"], "description"=>"<p>(A) TMP 72.27.01, <i>Gravitholus albertus</i> in dorsal view of erosive lesions; (B) TMP 1992.2.3, <i>Stegoceras validum</i> in dorsal view with arrows denoting dorsal lesions; (C) TMP 2011.012.0009, <i>Stegoceras validum</i> in dorsal view with arrow denoting dorsal lesion; (D) TMP 1997.99.2, an unidentified pachycephalosaurid in dorsal view with arrows denoting lesions; (E) AMNH 0044, <i>Sphaerotholus buchholtzae</i>, in dorsal view with arrows denoting dorsal lesions; (F) BMRP 2001.4.1, <i>Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis</i> in dorsal view with arrows denoting large depression features and high magnification of deep erosive lesions (G, H). Rostral portion of the frontal denoting “r”.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "pathological", "pachycephalosaurid"], "article_id"=>745897, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Selected_pathological_pachycephalosaurid_specimens_/745897", "title"=>"Selected pathological pachycephalosaurid specimens.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119489"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of lesions among frontal, sutural, and parietal regions in high- and low-domed specimens.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "lesions", "parietal", "regions", "high-", "low-domed"], "article_id"=>745914, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_lesions_among_frontal_sutural_and_parietal_regions_in_high_and_low_domed_specimens_/745914", "title"=>"Distribution of lesions among frontal, sutural, and parietal regions in high- and low-domed specimens.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119474"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: f, frontal; p, parietal; fp, frontoparietal suture; pso, posterior supraorbital; po, postorbital; ecf Modified from Schott et al., 2011 with permission.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "diagram", "illustrating", "morphometric", "landmark-defined", "regions", "lesion", "dorsal", "ventral", "lateral"], "article_id"=>745899, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_diagram_illustrating_the_morphometric_landmark_defined_regions_of_lesion_distribution_in_dorsal_A_ventral_B_and_left_lateral_C_views_/745899", "title"=>"Schematic diagram illustrating the morphometric landmark-defined regions of lesion distribution in dorsal (A), ventral (B), and left lateral (C) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119512"], "description"=>"<p>Pathologic frontoparietal dome specimens and distribution of lesions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "frontoparietal", "dome", "specimens"], "article_id"=>745937, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pathologic_frontoparietal_dome_specimens_and_distribution_of_lesions_/745937", "title"=>"Pathologic frontoparietal dome specimens and distribution of lesions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119510"], "description"=>"<p><i>Giraffa</i>-style necking and parietal clashing in high-domed and large-horned specimens such as subadult <i>Pachycephalosaurus</i> (“<i>Stygimoloch</i>” and “<i>Dracorex</i>”).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "head-to-body", "interactions"], "article_id"=>745935, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothetical_head_to_body_interactions_among_pachycephalosaurids_/745935", "title"=>"Hypothetical head-to-body interactions among pachycephalosaurids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119511"], "description"=>"<p>Although a number of different hypotheses could potentially account for damage to the frontoparietal domes, infection resulting from trauma is the only one that would account not only for the damage seen, but also the existence of healing and the restriction of infection to the dorsal part of the dome in mature pachycephalosaurids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "mechanisms", "dome", "predictions"], "article_id"=>745936, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothesized_mechanisms_of_dome_modification_and_predictions_made_for_each_hypothesis_/745936", "title"=>"Hypothesized mechanisms of dome modification, and predictions made for each hypothesis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119506"], "description"=>"<p>Apex of frontoparietal dome of UA2 (<i>Stegoceras validum</i>) (A), and cranial orientation during combat (B); Apex of frontoparietal dome of ZPAL MgD-I/104 (<i>Prenocephale prenes</i>) (C), and cranial orientation during combat (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "frontoparietal", "dome", "ua2", "cranial", "apex", "zpal"], "article_id"=>745931, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Apex_of_frontoparietal_dome_of_UA2_Stegoceras_validum_A_and_cranial_orientation_during_combat_B_Apex_of_frontoparietal_dome_of_ZPAL_MgD_I_104_Prenocephale_prenes_C_and_cranial_orientation_during_combat_D_/745931", "title"=>"Apex of frontoparietal dome of UA2 (<i>Stegoceras validum</i>) (A), and cranial orientation during combat (B); Apex of frontoparietal dome of ZPAL MgD-I/104 (<i>Prenocephale prenes</i>) (C), and cranial orientation during combat (D).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119491"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution and frequency of injuries on the postcranial skeleton of extant bovids; <i>Capra</i>, <i>Ovis</i>, and <i>Bison</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "injuries", "postcranial", "skeleton", "extant"], "article_id"=>745916, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_and_frequency_of_injuries_on_the_postcranial_skeleton_of_extant_bovids_Capra_Ovis_and_Bison_/745916", "title"=>"Distribution and frequency of injuries on the postcranial skeleton of extant bovids; <i>Capra</i>, <i>Ovis</i>, and <i>Bison</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119488"], "description"=>"<p>Skull in dorsal (A), left lateral (B), rostral (C), and caudal views (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "observed", "lesions", "pachycephalosaurid", "cranial"], "article_id"=>745913, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_total_observed_lesions_on_pachycephalosaurid_cranial_model_UALVP_2_Stegoceras_validum_/745913", "title"=>"Distribution of total observed lesions on pachycephalosaurid cranial model (UALVP 2, <i>Stegoceras validum</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119505"], "description"=>"<p>Reconstruction of <i>Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis</i> with cranial lesion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "cranial"], "article_id"=>745930, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reconstruction_of_Pachycephalosaurus_wyomingensis_with_cranial_lesion_/745930", "title"=>"Reconstruction of <i>Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis</i> with cranial lesion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119485"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency of pathologic frontoparietal domes of the total sample size (n = 109).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "pathologic", "frontoparietal", "domes"], "article_id"=>745910, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_of_pathologic_frontoparietal_domes_of_the_total_sample_size_n_8202_8202_109_/745910", "title"=>"Frequency of pathologic frontoparietal domes of the total sample size (n = 109).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119514", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119515", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119516", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119518", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119519", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119521", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119534", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119537", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119541"], "description"=>"<div><p>Pachycephalosaurids are small, herbivorous dinosaurs with domed skulls formed by massive thickening of the cranial roof. The function of the dome has been a focus of debate: the dome has variously been interpreted as the product of sexual selection, as an adaptation for species recognition, or as a weapon employed in intraspecific combat, where it was used in butting matches as in extant ungulates. This last hypothesis is supported by the recent identification of cranial pathologies in pachycephalosaurids, which appear to represent infections resulting from trauma. However, the frequency and distribution of pathologies have not been studied in a systematic fashion. Here, we show that pachycephalosaurids are characterized by a remarkably high incidence of cranial injury, where 22% of specimens have lesions on the dome. Frequency of injury shows no significant difference between different genera, but flat-headed morphs (here interpreted as juveniles or females) lack lesions. Mapping of injuries onto a digitial pachycephalosaurid skull shows that although lesions are distributed across the dome, they cluster near the apex, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the dome functioned for intraspecific butting matches.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "cranial", "pathologies", "head-butting", "dome-headed", "dinosaurs"], "article_id"=>745939, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distributions_of_Cranial_Pathologies_Provide_Evidence_for_Head_Butting_in_Dome_Headed_Dinosaurs_Pachycephalosauridae_/745939", "title"=>"Distributions of Cranial Pathologies Provide Evidence for Head-Butting in Dome-Headed Dinosaurs (Pachycephalosauridae)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119513"], "description"=>"<p>Analyzed pachycephalosaur genera and frequency of pathologic frontoparietals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "pachycephalosaur", "genera", "pathologic"], "article_id"=>745938, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analyzed_pachycephalosaur_genera_and_frequency_of_pathologic_frontoparietals_/745938", "title"=>"Analyzed pachycephalosaur genera and frequency of pathologic frontoparietals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1119494"], "description"=>"<p><i>Ovis canadensis</i> (A) illustrating smaller lesions clustering around main depression (B), and <i>Ovis dalli</i> (C) illustrating irregular lesion floors (D). Scale bars for A and C equal 5 cm. Scale bars for B and D equal 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "lesions", "skulls"], "article_id"=>745919, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph E. Peterson", "Collin Dischler", "Nicholas R. Longrich"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frontal_lesions_identified_on_skulls_of_Ovis_/745919", "title"=>"Frontal lesions identified on skulls of <i>Ovis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-16 01:45:00"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 428]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[591, 936, 1096, 1257, 1426, 1560, 1700, 1841, 1976, 2133, 2250, 2381, 2482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Critical care and emergency medicine", "average_usage"=>[232, 415, 550, 654, 763, 861, 963, 1070, 1169, 1253, 1343, 1442, 1502]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts