A Sexually Conditioned Switch of Chemosensory Behavior in C. elegans
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{"title"=>"A Sexually Conditioned Switch of Chemosensory Behavior in C. elegans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Naoko", "last_name"=>"Sakai", "scopus_author_id"=>"55785729700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryo", "last_name"=>"Iwata", "scopus_author_id"=>"35077690700"}, {"first_name"=>"Saori", "last_name"=>"Yokoi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56010476200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rebecca A.", "last_name"=>"Butcher", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201948030"}, {"first_name"=>"Jon", "last_name"=>"Clardy", "scopus_author_id"=>"35445133800"}, {"first_name"=>"Masahiro", "last_name"=>"Tomioka", "scopus_author_id"=>"14322769900"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuichi", "last_name"=>"Iino", "scopus_author_id"=>"55708799500"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369260776", "sgr"=>"84879819827", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23861933", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879819827", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0068676", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"828ccbe3-f7d7-3b01-9202-e0e25bf67805", "abstract"=>"In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s). Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that C. elegans males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sexually-conditioned-switch-chemosensory-behavior-c-elegans", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>3, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111637", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111638"], "description"=>"<div><p>In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode <i>C. elegans</i>, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s). Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that <i>C. elegans</i> males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "ecology", "Chemical ecology", "genetics", "Genetic mutation", "Mutation types", "Animal genetics", "Gene function", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Caenorhabditis elegans", "neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Nematology", "Animal management", "Sexual behavior", "conditioned", "chemosensory"], "article_id"=>739867, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Naoko Sakai", "Ryo Iwata", "Saori Yokoi", "Rebecca A. Butcher", "Jon Clardy", "Masahiro Tomioka", "Yuichi Iino"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068676.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068676.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Sexually_Conditioned_Switch_of_Chemosensory_Behavior_in_C_elegans_/739867", "title"=>"A Sexually Conditioned Switch of Chemosensory Behavior in <i>C. elegans</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-07-04 02:25:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111636"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>tra-1(gf)</i> was expressed in all neurons by the <i>H20</i> promoter or in ASE neurons by the <i>gcy-5</i> and <i>gcy-7</i> promoters to feminize the respective neurons of males, which were conditioned with the WT hermaphrodites. Males with feminized neurons are not attracted to NaCl after being conditioned with hermaphrodites. (B) Overexpression of <i>fem-3(+)</i> under the control of the <i>H20</i> promoter to masculinize all neurons. The transgenic hermaphrodites were conditioned in a high-density population, but this procedure does not cause sexual conditioning. **, <i>P</i><0.001; n.s., not significant. Error bars represent SEM. n = 56–64 animals for each condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "ecology", "Chemical ecology", "genetics", "Genetic mutation", "Mutation types", "Animal genetics", "Gene function", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Caenorhabditis elegans", "neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Nematology", "Animal management", "Sexual behavior", "tissue-", "cell-specific"], "article_id"=>739866, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Naoko Sakai", "Ryo Iwata", "Saori Yokoi", "Rebecca A. Butcher", "Jon Clardy", "Masahiro Tomioka", "Yuichi Iino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068676.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_impact_of_tissue_and_cell_specific_sex_conversion_on_sexual_conditioning_/739866", "title"=>"The impact of tissue- and cell-specific sex conversion on sexual conditioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-04 02:25:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111635"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The <i>mab-3(e1240); him-8(e1489)</i> and <i>mab-5(e1239); him-5(e1490); dpy-21(e428)</i> males were conditioned with the WT hermaphrodites. The <i>him-5</i> and <i>him-8</i> mutations were used to increase the incidence of males. The <i>mab-5(e1239); him-5(e1490); dpy-21(e428)</i> hermaphrodites produce <i>dpy</i> hermaphrodites and <i>non-dpy</i> males. These tail-defective males were defective in sexual conditioning. (B) Pheromone attraction assay (0.1 U/µl) of the <i>mab-3(e1240); him-5(e1490)</i> mutant. Tail-defective males respond normally to pheromones. (C) The WT males were conditioned with <i>lin-2(e1309)</i> vulvaless hermaphrodites. Vulvaless hermaphrodites can provide the cue for sexual conditioning. (D) Model for the sexual signals transmitted from hermaphrodites to males in sexual conditioning. The hermaphrodite pheromone and another cue are both required for sexual conditioning, and may be detected by the head and tale sensory systems of males, respectively. **, <i>P</i><0.001; +, <i>P</i><0.05; n.s., not significant. Error bars represent SEM. n = 49–69 animals for salt chemotaxis assay, and 16–27 animals for pheromone attraction assay.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "ecology", "Chemical ecology", "genetics", "Genetic mutation", "Mutation types", "Animal genetics", "Gene function", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Caenorhabditis elegans", "neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Nematology", "Animal management", "Sexual behavior", "conditioning", "requires"], "article_id"=>739865, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Naoko Sakai", "Ryo Iwata", "Saori Yokoi", "Rebecca A. Butcher", "Jon Clardy", "Masahiro Tomioka", "Yuichi Iino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068676.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sexual_conditioning_requires_the_male_tail_function_/739865", "title"=>"Sexual conditioning requires the male tail function.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-04 02:25:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111633"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The dependency of sexual conditioning on the number of hermaphrodites present during conditioning. Salt attraction of males increases with increasing density of hermaphrodites during conditioning. CTX, chemotaxis. (B) The plasticity of salt chemotaxis in hermaphrodites is not significantly affected by the presence of males or hermaphrodites during salt/starvation conditioning. (C) Summary of inter-individual interactions that lead to suppression of salt aversion in males and hermaphrodites. **, <i>P</i><0.001; n.s., not significant. Error bars represent SEM. n = 49–80 animals for each condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "ecology", "Chemical ecology", "genetics", "Genetic mutation", "Mutation types", "Animal genetics", "Gene function", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Caenorhabditis elegans", "neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Nematology", "Animal management", "Sexual behavior"], "article_id"=>739863, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Naoko Sakai", "Ryo Iwata", "Saori Yokoi", "Rebecca A. Butcher", "Jon Clardy", "Masahiro Tomioka", "Yuichi Iino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068676.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hermaphrodite_density_is_critical_for_sexual_conditioning_/739863", "title"=>"Hermaphrodite density is critical for sexual conditioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-04 02:25:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111634"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The <i>daf-22(m130)</i> hermaphrodite (<i>daf-22</i> herm) shows defects in sexual conditioning, which are rescued by addition of crude pheromone to the conditioning plate. Pheromone rescues sexual conditioning in <i>daf-22</i> hermaphrodites **, <i>P</i><0.001; +, <i>P</i><0.05; n.s., not significant. Error bars represent SEM. n = 18–36 animals. (B) Crude pheromone did not support sexual conditioning when applied without the <i>daf-22</i> hermaphrodite. (C) Sexual conditioning does not occur on the pheromone-containing plate with a high-density population of males. **, <i>P</i><0.001; n.s., not significant. Error bars represent SEM. n = 38–63 animals for each condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "ecology", "Chemical ecology", "genetics", "Genetic mutation", "Mutation types", "Animal genetics", "Gene function", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Caenorhabditis elegans", "neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Nematology", "Animal management", "Sexual behavior"], "article_id"=>739864, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Naoko Sakai", "Ryo Iwata", "Saori Yokoi", "Rebecca A. Butcher", "Jon Clardy", "Masahiro Tomioka", "Yuichi Iino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068676.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pheromonal_signaling_is_essential_but_not_sufficient_for_sexual_conditioning_/739864", "title"=>"Pheromonal signaling is essential but not sufficient for sexual conditioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-04 02:25:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111632"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic of the assay for single worms in starvation-dependent plasticity of chemotaxis. Each worm was separately conditioned in the absence (1) or presence (2) of NaCl and tested for salt chemotaxis. Representative traces of (1) attraction to and (2) repulsion from the salt-concentration peak are shown. (B) Plasticity of salt chemotaxis in hermaphrodites (herm) and males. Single animals were subjected to starvation conditioning in the presence (NaCl-conditioned) or absence (mock-conditioned) of salt. No significant difference between males and females was observed in this paradigm. (C) Procedures to examine inter-sexual and inter-individual effects during salt/starvation conditioning of males. (D) Males are sexually conditioned to be attracted to salt after conditioning with hermaphrodites (herm), and this effect is not observed when conditioned with males. **, <i>P</i><0.001; *, <i>P</i><0.01; n.s., not significant. Error bars represent SEM. n = 55–80 animals for each condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "ecology", "Chemical ecology", "genetics", "Genetic mutation", "Mutation types", "Animal genetics", "Gene function", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Caenorhabditis elegans", "neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Nematology", "Animal management", "Sexual behavior", "conditioning", "chemotaxis"], "article_id"=>739862, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Naoko Sakai", "Ryo Iwata", "Saori Yokoi", "Rebecca A. Butcher", "Jon Clardy", "Masahiro Tomioka", "Yuichi Iino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068676.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sexual_conditioning_of_salt_chemotaxis_behavior_in_the_male_/739862", "title"=>"Sexual conditioning of salt chemotaxis behavior in the male.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-04 02:25:31"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[261, 444, 554, 655, 748, 834, 923, 1004, 1089, 1170, 1244, 1315, 1380]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}]}
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