The Rationale for Consuming Cognitive Enhancement Drugs in University Students and Teachers
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{"title"=>"The Rationale for Consuming Cognitive Enhancement Drugs in University Students and Teachers", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sebastian", "last_name"=>"Sattler", "scopus_author_id"=>"56063862300"}, {"first_name"=>"Carsten", "last_name"=>"Sauer", "scopus_author_id"=>"47062211000"}, {"first_name"=>"Guido", "last_name"=>"Mehlkop", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508336173"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Graeff", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507541203"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84880419379", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0068821", "pui"=>"369378634", "pmid"=>"23874778", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880419379", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"67c0aa0b-cdb5-37a3-87d7-d86384ea8766", "abstract"=>"Cognitive enhancement (CE) is the pharmaceutical augmentation of mental abilities (e.g., learning or memory) without medical necessity. This topic has recently attracted widespread attention in scientific and social circles. However, knowledge regarding the mechanisms that underlie the decision to use CE medication is limited. To analyze these decisions, we used data from two online surveys of randomly sampled university teachers (N = 1,406) and students (N = 3,486). Each respondent evaluated one randomly selected vignette with regard to a hypothetical CE drug. We experimentally varied the characteristics of the drugs among vignettes and distributed them among respondents. In addition, the respondent's internalization of social norms with respect to CE drug use was measured. Our results revealed that students were more willing to enhance cognitive performance via drugs than university teachers, although the overall willingness was low. The probability of side effects and their strength reduced the willingness to use CE drugs among students and university teachers, whereas higher likelihoods and magnitudes of CE increased this propensity. In addition, the internalized norm against CE drug use influenced decision making: Higher internalization decreased the willingness to use such medications. Students' internalized norms more strongly affected CE abstinence compared with those of university teachers. Furthermore, internalized norms negatively interacted with the instrumental incentives for taking CE medication. This internalization limited the influence of and deliberation on instrumental incentives. This study is the first to provide empirical evidence regarding the importance of social norms and their influence on rational decision making with regard to CE. We identified previously undiscovered decision-making patterns concerning CE. Thus, this study provides insight into the motivators and inhibitors of CE drug use. These findings have implications for contending with CE behavior by highlighting the magnitude of potential side effects and by informing the debate regarding the ethics of CE use.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/rationale-consuming-cognitive-enhancement-drugs-university-students-teachers", "reader_count"=>77, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Philosophy"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Psychology"=>22, "Social Sciences"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>22}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1121010"], "description"=>"<p>Each panel shows the mean willingness to use a CE pill on a 10-point Likert scale with the following anchors: 0 = “strongly against use” and 9 = “strongly in favor of use”. Corresponding confidence intervals with local polynomial smoothing are also shown. The lines in each panel indicate a generally lower willingness to use CE drugs for university teachers (dashed lines) compared with students (drawn lines). Mean willingness increases with increases in mental performance (A). Mean willingness increases as the probability of performance increases (B). Mean willingness decreases as the magnitude of headache increases (C). Mean willingness decreases as the (logarithmized) probability of headache increases (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Drugs and devices", "psychopharmacology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Medical sociology", "psychology", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Sociology", "Crime and criminology", "Delinquency", "Social research", "students", "teachers", "enhancers", "varying"], "article_id"=>747170, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Carsten Sauer", "Guido Mehlkop", "Peter Graeff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068821.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Willingness_of_Students_and_Teachers_to_Use_Cognitive_Enhancers_with_Four_Varying_Characteristics_/747170", "title"=>"Willingness of Students and Teachers to Use Cognitive Enhancers with Four Varying Characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-17 01:54:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1121011"], "description"=>"<p>The estimated mean willingness to use a CE pill was measured on a 10-point Likert scale with the following anchors: 0 = “strongly against use” and 9 = “strongly in favor of use”. Corresponding confidence intervals based on Model 4 (all effects with the exception of norm internalization and the group variable were set to their mean values) are also shown. Mean willingness decreased as a function of norm internalization. This decrease was stronger in university students (light grey line) than teachers (black line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Drugs and devices", "psychopharmacology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Medical sociology", "psychology", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Sociology", "Crime and criminology", "Delinquency", "Social research", "students", "teachers", "enhancers"], "article_id"=>747171, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Carsten Sauer", "Guido Mehlkop", "Peter Graeff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068821.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Willingness_of_University_Students_and_Teachers_to_Use_Cognitive_Enhancers_Depending_on_Their_Norm_Internalizations_/747171", "title"=>"Willingness of University Students and Teachers to Use Cognitive Enhancers Depending on Their Norm Internalizations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-17 01:54:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1121012"], "description"=>"<p>Each panel shows the mean willingness to use a CE pill on a 10-point Likert scale with the following anchors: 0 = “strongly against use” and 9 = “strongly in favor of use”. A strong norm internalization (dotted lines), leads to a flat slope, which indicates that utility does not increase the willingness of university students (Panel A) or teachers (B). A weak internalization (drawn lines) leads to steep slopes, which indicates that utility strongly increases this willingness. A medium internalization (dashed lines) leads to a moderate ascent of the slopes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Drugs and devices", "psychopharmacology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Medical sociology", "psychology", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Sociology", "Crime and criminology", "Delinquency", "Social research", "students", "teachers", "enhancers", "internalized"], "article_id"=>747172, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Carsten Sauer", "Guido Mehlkop", "Peter Graeff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068821.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Willingness_of_Students_and_Teachers_to_Use_Cognitive_Enhancers_Depending_on_Utility_Internalized_Norms_and_Interactions_/747172", "title"=>"Willingness of Students and Teachers to Use Cognitive Enhancers Depending on Utility, Internalized Norms, and Interactions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-17 01:54:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1121013"], "description"=>"<p>Vignette Dimensions, Levels, and Coding in Both Studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Drugs and devices", "psychopharmacology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Medical sociology", "psychology", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Sociology", "Crime and criminology", "Delinquency", "Social research", "coding"], "article_id"=>747173, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Carsten Sauer", "Guido Mehlkop", "Peter Graeff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068821.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vignette_Dimensions_Levels_and_Coding_in_Both_Studies_/747173", "title"=>"Vignette Dimensions, Levels, and Coding in Both Studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-17 01:54:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1121014", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1121015", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1121016"], "description"=>"<div><p>Cognitive enhancement (CE) is the pharmaceutical augmentation of mental abilities (e.g., learning or memory) without medical necessity. This topic has recently attracted widespread attention in scientific and social circles. However, knowledge regarding the mechanisms that underlie the decision to use CE medication is limited. To analyze these decisions, we used data from two online surveys of randomly sampled university teachers (N = 1,406) and students (N = 3,486). Each respondent evaluated one randomly selected vignette with regard to a hypothetical CE drug. We experimentally varied the characteristics of the drugs among vignettes and distributed them among respondents. In addition, the respondent’s internalization of social norms with respect to CE drug use was measured. Our results revealed that students were more willing to enhance cognitive performance via drugs than university teachers, although the overall willingness was low. The probability of side effects and their strength reduced the willingness to use CE drugs among students and university teachers, whereas higher likelihoods and magnitudes of CE increased this propensity. In addition, the internalized norm against CE drug use influenced decision making: Higher internalization decreased the willingness to use such medications. Students’ internalized norms more strongly affected CE abstinence compared with those of university teachers. Furthermore, internalized norms negatively interacted with the instrumental incentives for taking CE medication. This internalization limited the influence of and deliberation on instrumental incentives. This study is the first to provide empirical evidence regarding the importance of social norms and their influence on rational decision making with regard to CE. We identified previously undiscovered decision-making patterns concerning CE. Thus, this study provides insight into the motivators and inhibitors of CE drug use. These findings have implications for contending with CE behavior by highlighting the magnitude of potential side effects and by informing the debate regarding the ethics of CE use.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Drugs and devices", "psychopharmacology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Medical sociology", "psychology", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Sociology", "Crime and criminology", "Delinquency", "Social research", "rationale", "consuming", "enhancement", "drugs", "students"], "article_id"=>747174, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Carsten Sauer", "Guido Mehlkop", "Peter Graeff"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068821.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068821.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068821.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Rationale_for_Consuming_Cognitive_Enhancement_Drugs_in_University_Students_and_Teachers_/747174", "title"=>"The Rationale for Consuming Cognitive Enhancement Drugs in University Students and Teachers", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-07-17 01:54:47"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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