Osteology of Huabeisaurus allocotus (Sauropoda: Titanosauriformes) from the Upper Cretaceous of China
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{"title"=>"Osteology of Huabeisaurus allocotus (Sauropoda: Titanosauriformes) from the Upper Cretaceous of China", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael D.", "last_name"=>"D'Emic", "scopus_author_id"=>"26532443000"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip D.", "last_name"=>"Mannion", "scopus_author_id"=>"25632385300"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Upchurch", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701733955"}, {"first_name"=>"Roger B.J.", "last_name"=>"Benson", "scopus_author_id"=>"23396137400"}, {"first_name"=>"Qiqing", "last_name"=>"Pang", "scopus_author_id"=>"15838179100"}, {"first_name"=>"Cheng", "last_name"=>"Zhengwu", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508069850"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880973906", "sgr"=>"84880973906", "pui"=>"369474319", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23936326", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0069375"}, "id"=>"6958bc51-3be2-3713-b9c4-8c9671c5b4e9", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The Late Cretaceous titanosauriform sauropod Huabeisaurus allocotus Pang and Cheng is known from teeth and much of the postcranial skeleton. Its completeness makes it an important taxon for integrating and interpreting anatomical observations from more fragmentary Cretaceous East Asian sauropods and for understanding titanosauriform evolution in general.\n\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a detailed redescription of Huabeisaurus allocotus and a suite of anatomical comparisons with other titanosauriforms that demonstrate its validity via autapomorphies (e.g., division of some presacral vertebral laminae, reduced development of caudal ribs, the development of fossae relative to one another in caudal vertebral neural arches, high tibia-to-femur ratio). Huabeisaurus shares many features with other Cretaceous East Asian sauropods (e.g., pendant cervical ribs, anterior-middle caudal vertebrae with a nearly flat anterior centrum face and a concave posterior centrum face) that are absent in sauropods from other landmasses and strata, suggesting a close relationship among many of these forms within the clade Somphospondyli.\n\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Restudy of Huabeisaurus provides further evidence for the existence of a clade of somphospondylans--Euhelopodidae--mainly found in the Cretaceous of East Asia. Euhelopodidae represents a fourth example of the evolution of narrow crowns within Sauropoda, along with diplodocoids, brachiosaurids, and advanced titanosaurs (lithostrotians). Despite being known from fewer species than Diplodocoidea, Brachiosauridae, or Lithostrotia, euhelopodids possessed a broader range of tooth shapes than any of these clades, suggesting that euhelopodids exemplified a comparably broad range of feeding strategies and perhaps diets.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/osteology-huabeisaurus-allocotus-sauropoda-titanosauriformes-upper-cretaceous-china", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>15, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>15}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141123"], "description"=>"<p>Holotype locality of <i>kH. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China, marked by ‘x’.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "locality", "cretaceous", "marked"], "article_id"=>762979, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotype_locality_of_kH_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_marked_by_x_/762979", "title"=>"Holotype locality of <i>kH. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China, marked by ‘x’.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141126"], "description"=>"<p>Based on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375#pone.0069375-Pang4\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375#pone.0069375-Pang5\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a>. <i>Abbreviations: Ar, Archean Jining Group; holo, holotype of H. allocotus; KHl, lower member of Upper Cretaceous Huiquanpu Formation; KHu, upper member of Upper Cretaceous Huiquanpu Formation; Ng, Neogene (?Miocene) Hanruoba Formation; Q, Quaternary sediments; para, former paratype humerus of H. allocotus (see text); Pt, Proterozoic rocks.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "geology", "holotype", "locality", "cretaceous", "marked"], "article_id"=>762982, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stratigraphy_and_geology_of_holotype_locality_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_marked_by_x_/762982", "title"=>"Stratigraphy and geology of holotype locality of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China, marked by ‘x’.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141129"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: cd, caudal vertebra(e); chev, chevrons; cru, crus; cv, cervical vertebrae; dori, dorsal rib(s); do, dorsal vertebra; il, ilium; L cor, left coracoid; L fe, left femur; L ish, left ischium; L pu, left pubis; L sca, left scapula; rad, radius; R cor, right coracoid; R fe, right femur; R ish, right ischium; R pu, right pubis; R sca, right scapula.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "holotype", "allocotus", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>762985, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quarry_map_of_holotype_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/762985", "title"=>"Quarry map of holotype of H. allocotus (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141133"], "description"=>"<p>Larger tooth in (A) occlusal, (B) basal (silhouette schematic); (C) mesial or distal, (D) labial, (E) mesial or distal, and (F) lingual views. Smaller tooth in (G) occlusal, (H) basal [silhouette schematic], (I), mesial or distal, (J) labial, (K) mesial or distal and (L) lingual views. <i>Abbreviations: b, bump; ri, ridge; wf, wear facet</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "teeth", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>762989, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_teeth_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/762989", "title"=>"Holotypic teeth of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141137"], "description"=>"<p>Taken during original preparation in (A) left lateral, (B) ventral, (C) anterior, and (D) posterior views. <i>Abbreviations: ?cprl-f, possible centroprezygapophyseal lamina fossa; cvr, cervical rib; ?eprl, possible epipophyseal-prezygapophyseal lamina; pn fo, pneumatic fossa; pocdf, postzygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; pep, pre-epipophysis; sdf, spinodiapophyseal fossa.</i> Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "cervical", "vertebra", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>762993, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_middle_cervical_vertebra_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/762993", "title"=>"Holotypic middle cervical vertebra of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141138"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) anterior, (B), anterolateral, (C) left lateral, (D), posterior, and (E) ventrolateral views. (A), (D), and (E) were taken during original preparation; (B) and (C) photographed in 2012. <i>Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; ep, epipophyses; fo, subfossae within spinodiapophyseal fossa; met, metapophysis; pep, pre-epipophysis; prdl-f, prezygodiapophyseal lamina fossa; sdf, spinodiapophyseal fossa.</i> Striped pattern indicates broken surface; dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "posterior", "cervical", "vertebra", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>762994, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_posterior_cervical_vertebra_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/762994", "title"=>"Holotypic posterior cervical vertebra of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141141"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) anterior, (B) dorsal, and (C) left lateral views with interpretive line drawings. Note that the post. spdl is broken dorsally in (B). <i>Abbreviations: ant. spdl, anterior spinodiapophyseal lamina; cam, camellate internal pneumaticity exposed on broken surface; cdf, centrodiapophyseal fossa; cprl-f, centroprezygapophyseal lamina fossa; cpol, centropostzygapophyseal lamina; ftd, flat-topped diapophysis; lprz, left prezygapophysis; pocdf, postzygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; post. spdl, posterior spinodiapophyseal lamina; rdi, right diapophysis; rprz, right prezygapophysis; spdl-f, spinodiapophyseal lamina fossa; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina.</i> Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "anterior", "dorsal", "neural", "arch", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>762997, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_anterior_dorsal_neural_arch_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/762997", "title"=>"Holotypic anterior dorsal neural arch of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141147"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) posterior and (B) dorsal views. <i>Abbreviations: cmra, camerate internal pneumaticity exposed on broken surface.</i> Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "anterior", "dorsal", "centrum", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763003, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_anterior_dorsal_centrum_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763003", "title"=>"Holotypic anterior dorsal centrum of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141148"], "description"=>"<p>Photographs and line drawings of dorsal vertebra in (A) anterior, (B) posterior, and (C) right lateral views. (A–C) were taken during original preparation. <i>Abbreviations: ?acpl, ?anterior centroparapophyseal lamina; cam, camerate internal pneumaticity exposed on broken bone surface; cpol, centropostzygapophyseal lamina; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; hypa, accessory ventral articulation of hypantrum; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pneumatic foramen (pleurocoel) in centrum; ?sprl, ?spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; tpol, ventral strut of intrapostzygapophyseal lamina.</i> Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "dorsal", "vertebra", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763004, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_dorsal_vertebra_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763004", "title"=>"Holotypic dorsal vertebra of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141153"], "description"=>"<p>Photographs and line drawings of middle-posterior dorsal vertebra in (A), anterior, (B) posterior, (C), right lateral, and (D), dorsal views. <i>Abbreviations: ant. spdl, anterior spinodiapophyseal lamina; atlp, anterior transverse lateral process; cam, camerate internal pneumaticity exposed on broken bone surface; cpof, centropostzygapophyseal fossa; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; fo, fossa; ?pcpl, ?posterior centroparapophyseal lamina; post. spdl, posterior spinodiapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; pl, pneumatic foramen (pleurocoel) in centrum; prsl, prespinal lamina.</i> Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "dorsal", "vertebra", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763006, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_dorsal_vertebra_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763006", "title"=>"Holotypic dorsal vertebra of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141155"], "description"=>"<p>Anterior dorsal rib in (A) lateral, (B) posterior; and (C) medial views. Posterior dorsal rib in (D) lateral, (E) posterior, and (F) medial views. (C) was taken during original preparation, all others were taken in 2012. <i>Abbreviations: ca, capitulum; fl, flange; pn, pneumatic opening; tu, tuberculum.</i> Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "dorsal", "ribs", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763008, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_dorsal_ribs_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763008", "title"=>"Holotypic dorsal ribs of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141157"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) right lateral, (B) right dorsolateral, (C) dorsal, and (D) dorsal views. (A–C) depict the sacrum during original preparation; (D) depicts the sacrum in 2012. <i>Abbreviations: cd1–4, caudal vertebrae 1–4; do, dorsal vertebra; ftd, flat-topped diapophysis; pra, preacetabular process; s1–6, sacral vertebral neural spines 1–6.</i> Dashed lines in (A–C) indicate broken bone margins; dashed lines in D indicate general locations of the last dorsal rib and the six sacral ribs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "sacrum", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763010, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_sacrum_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763010", "title"=>"Holotypic sacrum <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141159"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) anterior; (B) posterior, and (C) left lateral views. First, second and sixth caudal vertebrae are depicted from left to right in each row. Lateral view of second caudal vertebra reversed. <i>Abbreviations: di, diapophysis; fo, fossa; lo, lobe; tu, tubercle; pocdf; postzygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; posdf, postzygapophyseal spinodiapophyseal fossa; posl, postspinal lamina; prcdf, prezygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; prsl, prespinal lamina; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; tu, tubercle.</i> Striped pattern indicates broken surface; dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "anterior", "caudal", "vertebrae", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763012, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_anterior_caudal_vertebrae_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763012", "title"=>"Holotypic anterior caudal vertebrae of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141162"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) anterior; (B) posterior, (C) left lateral, (D) right lateral, (E) dorsal, and (F) ventral views. Ninth, eleventh, twelfth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth caudal vertebrae are depicted from left to right in each row. <i>Abbreviations: cf, chevron facet; pocdf; postzygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; posdf, postzygapophyseal spinodiapophyseal fossa, ri, ridge.</i> Striped pattern indicates broken surface; dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "caudal", "vertebrae", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763015, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_middle_caudal_vertebrae_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763015", "title"=>"Holotypic middle caudal vertebrae of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141164"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) anterior; (B) posterior, (C) left lateral, (D) right lateral, (E) dorsal, and (F) ventral views. Twentieth, twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-fourth, twenty-eighth, twenty-ninth, and thirtieth caudal vertebrae are depicted from left to right in each row. <i>Abbreviations: cf, chevron facet; ncj, neurocentral junction; ri, ridge.</i> Striped pattern indicates broken surface; dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "posterior", "caudal", "vertebrae", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763017, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g015"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_posterior_caudal_vertebrae_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763017", "title"=>"Holotypic posterior caudal vertebrae of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141166"], "description"=>"<p>Photographed during original preparation in (A) lateral, (B) posterior; and (C) anterior views. Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "chevrons", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763019, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g016"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_chevrons_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763019", "title"=>"Holotypic chevrons of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141168"], "description"=>"<p>Left scapula in (A) lateral view; right scapula in (B) lateral and (C) medial views. Silhouette next to (B) shows schematic cross section of base of scapular blade. (A) and (B) photographed in 2012; (C) photographed during original preparation. <i>Abbreviations: af, acromial fossa; con, concavity, gl, glenoid.</i> Striped pattern indicates broken surface; dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "scapulae", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763021, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g017"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_scapulae_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763021", "title"=>"Holotypic scapulae of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141170"], "description"=>"<p>Left coracoid in (A) posterodorsal, (B) medial, and (D) lateral views. Right coracoid in (C) medial and (E) lateral views. (A), (B), and (D) photographed in 2012; (C) and (E) photographed during original preparation. <i>Abbreviations: gl, glenoid; igl, infraglenoid lip; tu, tubercle.</i> Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "coracoids", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763023, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g018"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_coracoids_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763023", "title"=>"Holotypic coracoids of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141174"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) proximal, (B) anterior, (C) lateral, and (D) posterior views. Silhouette between (C) and (D) shows schematic cross section of the diaphysis. (A) photographed in 2012; (B–D) photographed during original preparation. <i>Abbreviations: gl, glenoid; igl, infraglenoid lip; tu, tubercle.</i> Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "radius", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763027, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g019"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_left_radius_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763027", "title"=>"Holotypic left radius of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141176"], "description"=>"<p>Left pubis in (A) medial view. Right pubis and ischium in (B) lateral view (only loosely articulated to depict their size relative to one another). Articulated ischia in (C) posterodorsal view. Outlines below ischia indicate articulated view of distal ends. (A and the ischium in B) photographed in 2012; (C and the pubis in B) photographed during original preparation. <i>Abbreviations: acet, acetabulum; tu, tuberosity.</i> Dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "pubes", "ischia", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763029, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g020"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_pubes_and_ischia_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763029", "title"=>"Holotypic pubes and ischia of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141177"], "description"=>"<p>Photographed during original preparation in (A) posterior, (B) medial, (C) anterior, and (D) distal views. Silhouette between (B) and (C) shows schematic cross section of the diaphysis. <i>Abbreviations: fic, fibular condyle; ftr, fourth trochanter; tic, tibial condyle.</i> Striped pattern indicates broken surface, dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "femur", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763030, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g021"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_left_femur_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763030", "title"=>"Holotypic left femur of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141178"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) lateral view during original preparation, (B) medial view during preparation, (C) lateral view in 2012, (D) medial view in 2012, (F) anterior view in 2012, (G) posterior view in 2012. Twisting arrow indicates that the tibia has been incorrectly restored (views C–D) by ‘twisting’ (breaking and re-gluing/plastering) since original preparation. <i>Abbreviations: ccr, cnemial crest.</i> Striped pattern indicates broken surface, dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "tibia", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763031, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g022"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_left_tibia_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763031", "title"=>"Holotypic left tibia of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141179"], "description"=>"<p>In (A) proximal, (B) anterior, (C) lateral, (D) posterior, and (E) medial views. Silhouette between (D) and (E) shows schematic cross section of the diaphysis. <i>Abbreviations: lt, lateral trochanter; ppr, posterior process.</i> Striped pattern indicates broken surface, dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "fibula", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763032, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g023"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holotypic_left_fibula_of_H_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763032", "title"=>"Holotypic left fibula of <i>H. allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141180"], "description"=>"<p>Photographed during original preparation in (A) anterior, (B) medial, (C) posterior, and (D) distal views. This bone was formerly regarded as the paratype of <i>H. allocotus.</i> Silhouette between (A) and (B) shows schematic cross section of the diaphysis. <i>Abbreviations: rac, radial condyle; ri, ridge.</i> Striped pattern indicates broken surface, dashed lines indicate broken bone margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "humerus", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763033, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g024"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Isolated_right_humerus_HBV_20002_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_Shanxi_China_/763033", "title"=>"Isolated right humerus (HBV-20002) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shanxi, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141181"], "description"=>"<p>Linear regression (solid black line) and 95% confidence intervals (dotted lines) are shown, as well as pGLS line (red dashed line). Note that <i>Huabeisaurus</i> has an unusually high tibia to femur ratio, only approached by some distantly related diplodocines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "femur"], "article_id"=>763034, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g025"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tibia_to_femur_ratio_in_sauropods_/763034", "title"=>"Tibia to femur ratio in sauropods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141182"], "description"=>"<p>The mean (white circle), standard deviation (tick mark) and range (horizontal line) of tooth breadth for each clade is indicated (log<sub>10</sub> Sauropodomorpha slenderness index range extends towards zero as indicated by the arrow). Sketches of tooth crowns (from left to right, <i>Euhelopus, Huabeisaurus, Phuwiangosaurus</i>) and red field depict the wide range of crown shapes in Euhelopodidae compared to other derived sauropod clades.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "slenderness", "genera", "teeth", "Sauropodomorpha", "derived"], "article_id"=>763035, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.g026"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crown_slenderness_index_versus_number_of_genera_known_from_teeth_in_Sauropodomorpha_and_derived_clades_/763035", "title"=>"Crown slenderness index versus number of genera known from teeth in Sauropodomorpha and derived clades.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141183"], "description"=>"<p>All measurements are in millimeters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "humerus", "cretaceous", "china", "referred", "paratype"], "article_id"=>763036, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_left_humerus_HBV_20002_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China_previously_referred_to_as_the_paratype_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_/763036", "title"=>"Measurements of the left humerus (HBV-20002) from the Upper Cretaceous of China previously referred to as the paratype of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141184"], "description"=>"<p>All measurements are in millimeters (e  =  estimated measurement). Abbreviations: CvA, poorly preserved cervical vertebra; CvB, well-preserved middle cervical vertebra (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375#pone-0069375-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>); CvC, well-preserved posterior cervical vertebra (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375#pone-0069375-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 6</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "cervical", "vertebrae", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763037, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_cervical_vertebrae_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China_/763037", "title"=>"Measurements of cervical vertebrae of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141185"], "description"=>"<p>All measurements are in millimeters. Abbreviations: DvA, dorsal vertebra in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375#pone-0069375-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 9</a>; DvB, dorsal vertebra in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375#pone-0069375-g010\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 10</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "dorsal", "vertebrae", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763038, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_dorsal_vertebrae_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China_/763038", "title"=>"Measurements of dorsal vertebrae of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141186"], "description"=>"<p>Measurements of the teeth of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of China. All measurements are in millimeters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "teeth", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763039, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_teeth_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China_All_measurements_are_in_millimeters_/763039", "title"=>"Measurements of the teeth of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of China. All measurements are in millimeters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141187"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers denote sequence as preserved, not actual sequence in vertebral series. An asterisk denotes a measurement based on an incomplete element. Chevrons 3, 8 and 11 are too incomplete to provide useful measurements. All measurements are in millimeters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "chevrons", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763040, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_chevrons_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China_/763040", "title"=>"Measurements of the chevrons of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141188"], "description"=>"<p>An asterisk denotes a measurement based on an incomplete element. All measurements are in millimeters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "pectoral", "girdle", "forelimb", "elements", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763041, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_pectoral_girdle_and_forelimb_elements_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China_/763041", "title"=>"Measurements of the pectoral girdle and forelimb elements of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141189"], "description"=>"<p>All measurements are in millimeters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "sacrum"], "article_id"=>763042, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_sacrum_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_HBV_20001_/763042", "title"=>"Measurements of the sacrum of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141190"], "description"=>"<p>Vertebrae 25–27 are excluded due to their poor preservation. Abbreviations: CL, centrum anteroposterior length; ACH, anterior surface of centrum dorsoventral height; ACW, anterior surface of centrum mediolateral width; PCH, posterior surface of centrum dorsoventral height; PCW, posterior surface of centrum mediolateral width; DFA, distance from anterior end of centrum to anterior end of neural arch; DFP, distance from posterior end of centrum to posterior end of neural arch; NAH, neural arch height (measured from dorsal surface of centrum up to the base of the postzygapophyses); PRE, extent of prezygapophyses beyond the anterior margin of the centrum; NSH, neural spine height (measured upwards from the base of the postzygapophyses); NSL, neural spine maximum anteroposterior length; NSW, neural spine maximum mediolateral width; CRW, caudal ribs mediolateral width (measured across the distal tips of the caudal ribs). A hash sign (#) denotes a CRW measurement based on only one caudal rib (measured from distal tip of caudal rib to midline of vertebra). An asterisk (*) denotes a measurement based on an incomplete element. Note that all centrum height measurements exclude chevron facets and centrum length measurements exclude the posteroventral expansion present in the anterior and middle caudal vertebrae. All measurements are in millimeters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "caudal", "vertebrae", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763043, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_caudal_vertebrae_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China_/763043", "title"=>"Measurements of the caudal vertebrae of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141191"], "description"=>"<p>An asterisk denotes a measurement based on an incomplete element. All measurements are in millimeters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "pelvic", "girdle", "elements", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763044, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_pelvic_girdle_elements_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China_/763044", "title"=>"Measurements of the pelvic girdle elements of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141192"], "description"=>"<p>An asterisk denotes a measurement based on an incomplete element. All measurements are in millimeters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "hindlimb", "elements", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>763045, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.t009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_hindlimb_elements_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_HBV_20001_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China_/763045", "title"=>"Measurements of the hindlimb elements of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (HBV-20001) from the Upper Cretaceous of China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141193", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141194", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141195", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141196", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141197"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The Late Cretaceous titanosauriform sauropod <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> Pang and Cheng is known from teeth and much of the postcranial skeleton. Its completeness makes it an important taxon for integrating and interpreting anatomical observations from more fragmentary Cretaceous East Asian sauropods and for understanding titanosauriform evolution in general.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>We present a detailed redescription of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> and a suite of anatomical comparisons with other titanosauriforms that demonstrate its validity via autapomorphies (e.g., division of some presacral vertebral laminae, reduced development of caudal ribs, the development of fossae relative to one another in caudal vertebral neural arches, high tibia-to-femur ratio). <i>Huabeisaurus</i> shares many features with other Cretaceous East Asian sauropods (e.g., pendant cervical ribs, anterior-middle caudal vertebrae with a nearly flat anterior centrum face and a concave posterior centrum face) that are absent in sauropods from other landmasses and strata, suggesting a close relationship among many of these forms within the clade Somphospondyli.</p><p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>Restudy of <i>Huabeisaurus</i> provides further evidence for the existence of a clade of somphospondylans – Euhelopodidae – mainly found in the Cretaceous of East Asia. Euhelopodidae represents a fourth example of the evolution of narrow crowns within Sauropoda, along with diplodocoids, brachiosaurids, and advanced titanosaurs (lithostrotians). Despite being known from fewer species than Diplodocoidea, Brachiosauridae, or Lithostrotia, euhelopodids possessed a broader range of tooth shapes than any of these clades, suggesting that euhelopodids exemplified a comparably broad range of feeding strategies and perhaps diets.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "taxonomy", "Animal taxonomy", "Paleontology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "osteology", "cretaceous", "china"], "article_id"=>763046, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. D'Emic", "Philip D. Mannion", "Paul Upchurch", "Roger B. J. Benson", "Qiqing Pang", "Cheng Zhengwu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069375.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Osteology_of_Huabeisaurus_allocotus_Sauropoda_Titanosauriformes_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_of_China/763046", "title"=>"Osteology of <i>Huabeisaurus allocotus</i> (Sauropoda: Titanosauriformes) from the Upper Cretaceous of China", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-08-02 02:38:03"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 428]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geology", "average_usage"=>[338, 522, 664, 773, 911, 1046, 1140, 1236, 1318, 1410, 1496, 1596, 1683, 1755]}]}
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