Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality
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{"title"=>"Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alain", "last_name"=>"Gagnon", "scopus_author_id"=>"9233302400"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew S.", "last_name"=>"Miller", "scopus_author_id"=>"57143105700"}, {"first_name"=>"Stacey A.", "last_name"=>"Hallman", "scopus_author_id"=>"55603135500"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Bourbeau", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701474255"}, {"first_name"=>"D. Ann", "last_name"=>"Herring", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004537916"}, {"first_name"=>"David J.D.", "last_name"=>"Earn", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701577234"}, {"first_name"=>"Joaquín", "last_name"=>"Madrenas", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005180693"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881104450", "sgr"=>"84881104450", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23940526", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0069586", "pui"=>"369491966"}, "id"=>"3cca788e-7d86-3225-9472-9cbb44d345fe", "abstract"=>"The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889-90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/agespecific-mortality-during-1918-influenza-pandemic-unravelling-mystery-high-young-adult-mortality", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141575"], "description"=>"<p>Recorded deaths (from all causes) by age in Montreal and Toronto, September and October, 1918.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Humoral immunity", "Immunity to infections", "microbiology", "Adaptive immunity", "Virology", "Mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility", "Emerging infectious diseases", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "influenza", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Economics", "Economic history", "Sociology", "demography", "Death rate", "deaths", "montreal", "september"], "article_id"=>763404, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Alain Gagnon", "Matthew S. Miller", "Stacey A. Hallman", "Robert Bourbeau", "D. Ann Herring", "David JD. Earn", "Joaquín Madrenas"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069586.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recorded_deaths_from_all_causes_by_age_in_Montreal_and_Toronto_September_and_October_1918_/763404", "title"=>"Recorded deaths (from all causes) by age in Montreal and Toronto, September and October, 1918.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 01:42:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141578"], "description"=>"<p>Death rates (from all causes) by age in Montreal and Toronto during the month of October, 1918.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Humoral immunity", "Immunity to infections", "microbiology", "Adaptive immunity", "Virology", "Mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility", "Emerging infectious diseases", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "influenza", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Economics", "Economic history", "Sociology", "demography", "Death rate", "rates", "montreal", "toronto"], "article_id"=>763405, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Alain Gagnon", "Matthew S. Miller", "Stacey A. Hallman", "Robert Bourbeau", "D. Ann Herring", "David JD. Earn", "Joaquín Madrenas"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069586.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Death_rates_from_all_causes_by_age_in_Montreal_and_Toronto_during_the_month_of_October_1918_/763405", "title"=>"Death rates (from all causes) by age in Montreal and Toronto during the month of October, 1918.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 01:42:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141579"], "description"=>"<p><b><sup>*</sup> *Key for </b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0069586#pone-0069586-g003\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Figure 3:</b></a> Yearly age-specific death counts were available from age 18 to 31 for Philadelphia, Indiana, and Kansas in the special tables that were tabulated for these locations in 1920 (27); Outside this range, death counts were only available for collapsed age-groups (i.e., 15–17, 32–34, 35–39, and 40–44). For these age-groups we divided the number of deaths in the interval by its length and plotted the obtained number at the midpoint value of the interval. Other Canadian locations: Hamilton, Ottawa, London, Welland & Lincoln, Winnipeg, and Vancouver.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Humoral immunity", "Immunity to infections", "microbiology", "Adaptive immunity", "Virology", "Mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility", "Emerging infectious diseases", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "influenza", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Economics", "Economic history", "Sociology", "demography", "Death rate", "deaths", "ages", "15", "44", "canadian", "american"], "article_id"=>763406, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Alain Gagnon", "Matthew S. Miller", "Stacey A. Hallman", "Robert Bourbeau", "D. Ann Herring", "David JD. Earn", "Joaquín Madrenas"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069586.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_deaths_from_all_causes_by_age_as_a_percentage_of_all_deaths_between_ages_15_and_44_in_all_available_Canadian_and_American_locations_/763406", "title"=>"Distribution of deaths (from all causes) by age as a percentage of all deaths between ages 15 and 44 in all available Canadian and American locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 01:42:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141581"], "description"=>"<p><b><sup>&&</sup>Key for </b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0069586#pone-0069586-g004\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Figure 4:</b></a> Yearly age-specific deaths counts were available from age 0 to 4 and from 18 to 31 for the US locations in the special tables that were tabulated for these locations in 1920 (27); outside these ranges, death counts were only available for collapsed age-groups (i.e., 5–9, 10–14, 15–17, 32–34, 35–39, 40–44, ..., and 60–64). We divided the number of deaths in the interval by its length and plotted the obtained number at the midpoint value of the interval. Deaths above age 65 were not available by age or age-groups for the U.S. locations. Ontario locations: Toronto, Hamilton, Ottawa, London, and Welland & Lincoln; US locations: Philadelphia, Indiana, and Kansas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Humoral immunity", "Immunity to infections", "microbiology", "Adaptive immunity", "Virology", "Mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility", "Emerging infectious diseases", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "influenza", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Economics", "Economic history", "Sociology", "demography", "Death rate", "deaths", "pandemic-related", "causes", "ontario", "september", "december"], "article_id"=>763408, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Alain Gagnon", "Whyareyou Wang", "Matthew S. Miller", "Stacey A. Hallman", "Robert Bourbeau", "D. Ann Herring", "David JD. Earn", "Joaquín Madrenas"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069586.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentages_of_deaths_by_age_from_pandemic_related_causes_and_from_all_other_causes_in_Ontario_and_US_locations_September_to_December_1918_/763408", "title"=>"Percentages of deaths by age from pandemic-related causes and from all other causes in Ontario and US locations, September to December 1918.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 01:42:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141585"], "description"=>"<p>Source and number of deaths (from all causes) recorded by selected locations during the 1918 flu pandemic.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Humoral immunity", "Immunity to infections", "microbiology", "Adaptive immunity", "Virology", "Mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility", "Emerging infectious diseases", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "influenza", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Economics", "Economic history", "Sociology", "demography", "Death rate", "deaths", "recorded", "locations", "1918", "flu"], "article_id"=>763412, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Alain Gagnon", "Matthew S. Miller", "Stacey A. Hallman", "Robert Bourbeau", "D. Ann Herring", "David JD. Earn", "Joaquín Madrenas"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069586.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Source_and_number_of_deaths_from_all_causes_recorded_by_selected_locations_during_the_1918_flu_pandemic_/763412", "title"=>"Source and number of deaths (from all causes) recorded by selected locations during the 1918 flu pandemic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 01:42:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"69", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1123", "full-text"=>"1854", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"83", "full-text"=>"118", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"91", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"76", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"134", "full-text"=>"170", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"160", "full-text"=>"178", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"87", "full-text"=>"105", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"93", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"159", "full-text"=>"193", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"185", "full-text"=>"229", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"80", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"194", "full-text"=>"238", "pdf"=>"17", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"152", "full-text"=>"169", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"185", "full-text"=>"210", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"211", "full-text"=>"254", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"178", "full-text"=>"219", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Population biology", "average_usage"=>[269, 448, 558, 658, 744, 830, 914, 995, 1068, 1139, 1214, 1284, 1349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[262, 463, 587, 693, 790, 882, 965, 1051, 1135, 1218, 1300, 1376, 1438]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[297, 523, 655, 765, 866, 971, 1070, 1159, 1256, 1337, 1424, 1496, 1568]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[267, 466, 592, 709, 806, 901, 989, 1075, 1162, 1254, 1342, 1424, 1486]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Demography", "average_usage"=>[253, 440, 552, 650, 735, 820, 902, 976, 1042, 1112, 1192, 1271, 1337]}]}
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