How Long and Low Can You Go? Effect of Conformation on the Risk of Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Extrusion in Domestic Dogs
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{"title"=>"How Long and Low Can You Go? Effect of Conformation on the Risk of Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Extrusion in Domestic Dogs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rowena M A", "last_name"=>"Packer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55200725900"}, {"first_name"=>"Anke", "last_name"=>"Hendricks", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005776383"}, {"first_name"=>"Holger A.", "last_name"=>"Volk", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202998990"}, {"first_name"=>"Nadia K.", "last_name"=>"Shihab", "scopus_author_id"=>"36017553500"}, {"first_name"=>"Charlotte C.", "last_name"=>"Burn", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003377580"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84880791184", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0069650", "pui"=>"369437879", "pmid"=>"23894518", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880791184", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"11ce8a20-7e09-312d-b846-63d97f715c7f", "abstract"=>"Intervertebral disc extrusion (IVDE) is a common neurological disorder in certain dog breeds, resulting in spinal cord compression and injury that can cause pain and neurological deficits. Most disc extrusions are reported in chondrodystrophic breeds (e.g. Dachshunds, Basset Hounds, Pekingese), where selection for 'long and low' morphologies is linked with intervertebral discs abnormalities that predispose dogs to IVDE. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between relative thoracolumbar vertebral column length and IVDE risk in diverse breeds. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a UK small animal referral hospital for diverse disorders including IVDE was carried out. Dogs were measured on breed-defining morphometrics, including back length (BL) and height at the withers (HW). Of 700 dogs recruited from this referral population, measured and clinically examined, 79 were diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDE following diagnostic imaging ± surgery. The BL:HW ratio was positively associated with IVDE risk, indicating that relatively longer dogs were at increased risk, e.g. the probability of IVDE was 0.30 for Miniature Dachshunds when BL:HW ratio equalled 1.1, compared to 0.68 when BL:HW ratio equalled 1.5. Additionally, both being overweight and skeletally smaller significantly increased IVDE risk. Therefore, selection for longer backs and miniaturisation should be discouraged in high-risk breeds to reduce IVDE risk. In higher risk individuals, maintaining a lean body shape is particularly important to reduce the risk of IVDE. Results are reported as probabilities to aid decision-making regarding breed standards and screening programmes reflecting the degree of risk acceptable to stakeholders.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/long-low-go-effect-conformation-risk-thoracolumbar-intervertebral-disc-extrusion-domestic-dogs", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>13, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>20, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>13}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>20}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1129531"], "description"=>"<p>The risk of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion is demonstrated here across the back length to height at the withers (BL:HW) ratio scale. This is demonstrated in the Miniature Dachshund breed (red) and small (purple), medium (blue) and large (black) cross breeds. As BL:HW increases, probability of being affected increases in all breeds. Age = 5 years and BCS = 5 for all dogs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "Animal types", "Small animals", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary neurology", "Veterinary surgery", "affected", "thoracolumbar", "intervertebral", "extrusion"], "article_id"=>753997, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Holger A. Volk", "Nadia K. Shihab", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069650.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_being_affected_by_thoracolumbar_intervertebral_disc_extrusion_across_the_relative_back_length_spectrum_/753997", "title"=>"Probability of being affected by thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion across the relative back length spectrum.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-24 02:37:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1129539"], "description"=>"<p>Mean BL:HW ratios of the 15 longest breeds, and other breeds affected by thoracolumbar IVDE, with number diagnosed with IVDE.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "Animal types", "Small animals", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary neurology", "Veterinary surgery", "ratios", "15", "longest", "breeds", "affected", "thoracolumbar", "diagnosed"], "article_id"=>754005, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Holger A. Volk", "Nadia K. Shihab", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069650.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_BL_HW_ratios_of_the_15_longest_breeds_and_other_breeds_affected_by_thoracolumbar_IVDE_with_number_diagnosed_with_IVDE_/754005", "title"=>"Mean BL:HW ratios of the 15 longest breeds, and other breeds affected by thoracolumbar IVDE, with number diagnosed with IVDE.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-24 02:37:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1129538"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of signalment between dogs affected and unaffected by thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "Animal types", "Small animals", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary neurology", "Veterinary surgery", "signalment", "dogs", "affected", "unaffected", "thoracolumbar", "intervertebral"], "article_id"=>754004, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Holger A. Volk", "Nadia K. Shihab", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069650.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_signalment_between_dogs_affected_and_unaffected_by_thoracolumbar_intervertebral_disc_extrusions_/754004", "title"=>"Comparison of signalment between dogs affected and unaffected by thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-24 02:37:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1129534"], "description"=>"<p>The risk of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion is demonstrated here across the body condition score (BCS) scale, using the Purina 9 point system. This is demonstrated in the Miniature Dachshund breeds (red), and small (purple), medium (blue) and large (black) cross breeds. As BCS increases, probability of being affected increases in all breeds. Age = 5 years and BL:HW = 1.5 (breed mean) for Miniature Dachshunds, and age = 5 years and BL:HW = 1.03 (breed mean) for all cross breeds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "Animal types", "Small animals", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary neurology", "Veterinary surgery", "affected", "thoracolumbar", "intervertebral", "extrusion"], "article_id"=>754000, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Holger A. Volk", "Nadia K. Shihab", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069650.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_being_affected_by_thoracolumbar_intervertebral_disc_extrusion_across_the_body_condition_score_scale_/754000", "title"=>"Probability of being affected by thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion across the body condition score scale.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-24 02:37:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1129540"], "description"=>"<p>Results of binary response mixed model analysis of key predictors upon the risk of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "Animal types", "Small animals", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary neurology", "Veterinary surgery", "binary", "predictors", "thoracolumbar", "intervertebral"], "article_id"=>754006, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Holger A. Volk", "Nadia K. Shihab", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069650.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_binary_response_mixed_model_analysis_of_key_predictors_upon_the_risk_of_thoracolumbar_intervertebral_disc_extrusion_/754006", "title"=>"Results of binary response mixed model analysis of key predictors upon the risk of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-24 02:37:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1129537"], "description"=>"<p>To gain a consensus view on which dogs were classed as chondrodystrophic, Web of Science was systematically searched using the terms “((dog* OR canine) AND chondrodystroph*)”, with full scientific papers published in English between 2007–2012 included. The full text of all 24 papers returned by the search were examined to determine which breeds were explicitly referred to as chondrodystrophic.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "Animal types", "Small animals", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary neurology", "Veterinary surgery", "referred", "chondrodystrophic"], "article_id"=>754003, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Holger A. Volk", "Nadia K. Shihab", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069650.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Breeds_referred_to_as_chondrodystrophic_in_recent_publications_/754003", "title"=>"Breeds referred to as chondrodystrophic in recent publications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-24 02:37:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1129536"], "description"=>"<p>Miniaturisation is demonstrated as a risk factor for intervertebral disc extrusion. As PC1 increases (and therefore skeletal size increases), the probability of being affected decreases in all breeds. Age = 5 years and BCS = 5 for all dogs, with BL:HW = 1.5 (breed mean) for Miniature Dachshunds (red), and BL:HW = 0.86, 1.19 and 1.51 for the three hypothetical cross breed comparisons, to demonstrate this relationship in relatively short (blue), relatively long (black), and extremely relatively long (purple) dogs. Breed estimates for the Miniature Dachshunds are limited to values of PC1 recorded in the study population, for biological plausibility.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "Animal types", "Small animals", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary diagnostics", "Veterinary neurology", "Veterinary surgery", "affected", "thoracolumbar", "intervertebral", "extrusion", "pc1"], "article_id"=>754002, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Rowena M. A. Packer", "Anke Hendricks", "Holger A. Volk", "Nadia K. Shihab", "Charlotte C. Burn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069650.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_being_affected_by_thoracolumbar_intervertebral_disc_extrusion_across_the_PC1_size_spectrum_/754002", "title"=>"Probability of being affected by thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion across the PC1 (size) spectrum.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-24 02:37:41"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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