Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in 3 Year Olds: Results from the Generation R Study
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{"title"=>"Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in 3 Year Olds: Results from the Generation R Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ilse J E", "last_name"=>"Flink", "scopus_author_id"=>"36643754500"}, {"first_name"=>"Rick G.", "last_name"=>"Prins", "scopus_author_id"=>"35196690600"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan J P", "last_name"=>"Mackenbach", "scopus_author_id"=>"36042840300"}, {"first_name"=>"Vincent W.", "last_name"=>"Jaddoe", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506585188"}, {"first_name"=>"Albert", "last_name"=>"Hofman", "scopus_author_id"=>"36048731400"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank C.", "last_name"=>"Verhulst", "scopus_author_id"=>"55147513700"}, {"first_name"=>"Henning", "last_name"=>"Tiemeier", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603547661"}, {"first_name"=>"Hein", "last_name"=>"Raat", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003734797"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881517591", "sgr"=>"84881517591", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0070070", "pmid"=>"23967068", "isbn"=>"8082465980", "pui"=>"369566971"}, "id"=>"75582704-eefa-3c05-8744-d3d9e2b86309", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Studies suggest that neighborhood ethnic diversity may be important when it comes to understanding ethnic inequalities in mental health. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between the ethnic minority status and child behavioral and emotional problems. METHODS We included 3076 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child age 3-years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5). Individual-level data, assessed with questionnaires, was combined with neighborhood-level data. Multi-level logistic regression models predicted the Odds Ratios for the CBCL total problems score as a function of maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity, computed with the Racial Diversity Index and categorized into tertiles. Interaction on the additive scale was assessed using Relative Access Risk due to Interaction. RESULTS Being from an ethnic minority was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.88-4.04) and adjusted models (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79-3.92). Residing in a high diversity neighborhood was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.13-3.64) but not in adjusted models (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51-1.57). When stratifying by the three levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity, ethnic inequalities in behavioral and emotional problems were greatest in low diversity neighborhoods (OR 5.24, 95%CI 2.47-11.14), smaller in high diversity neighborhoods (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.66-5.99) and smallest in medium diversity neighborhoods (OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.90-2.82). Tests for interaction (when comparing medium to low diversity neighborhoods) trended towards negative on both the additive and multiplicative scale for the maternal-report (RERI: -3.22, 95% CI -0.70-0.59; Ratio of ORs: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.76). CONCLUSION This study suggests that ethnic inequalities in child behavioral and emotional problems may be greatest in ethnically homogeneous neighborhoods.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neighborhood-ethnic-diversity-behavioral-emotional-problems-3-year-olds-results-generation-r-study-1", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170178"], "description"=>"<p>Values are percentages for categorical variables, means (SD) for continuous, normally distributed variables and medians (IQD) for non-normally distributed variables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Child psychiatry", "pediatrics", "Child development", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Child health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Sociology", "social policy"], "article_id"=>772861, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ilse J. E. Flink", "Rick G. Prins", "Johan J. P. Mackenbach", "Vincent W. Jaddoe", "Albert Hofman", "Frank C. Verhulst", "Henning Tiemeier", "Hein Raat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070070.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_population_N_8202_8202_3076_/772861", "title"=>"Characteristics of the population (N = 3076).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-14 03:43:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170179", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170183"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Studies suggest that neighborhood ethnic diversity may be important when it comes to understanding ethnic inequalities in mental health. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between the ethnic minority status and child behavioral and emotional problems.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We included 3076 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child age 3-years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5). Individual-level data, assessed with questionnaires, was combined with neighborhood-level data. Multi-level logistic regression models predicted the Odds Ratios for the CBCL total problems score as a function of maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity, computed with the Racial Diversity Index and categorized into tertiles. Interaction on the additive scale was assessed using Relative Access Risk due to Interaction.</p><p>Results</p><p>Being from an ethnic minority was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.88–4.04) and adjusted models (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79–3.92). Residing in a high diversity neighborhood was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.13–3.64) but not in adjusted models (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51–1.57). When stratifying by the three levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity, ethnic inequalities in behavioral and emotional problems were greatest in low diversity neighborhoods (OR 5.24, 95%CI 2.47–11.14), smaller in high diversity neighborhoods (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.66–5.99) and smallest in medium diversity neighborhoods (OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.90–2.82). Tests for interaction (when comparing medium to low diversity neighborhoods) trended towards negative on both the additive and multiplicative scale for the maternal-report (RERI: −3.22, 95% CI −0.70–0.59; Ratio of ORs: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12–0.76).</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>This study suggests that ethnic inequalities in child behavioral and emotional problems may be greatest in ethnically homogeneous neighborhoods.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Child psychiatry", "pediatrics", "Child development", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Child health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Sociology", "social policy", "problems"], "article_id"=>772862, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ilse J. E. Flink", "Rick G. Prins", "Johan J. P. Mackenbach", "Vincent W. Jaddoe", "Albert Hofman", "Frank C. Verhulst", "Henning Tiemeier", "Hein Raat"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070070.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070070.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neighborhood_Ethnic_Diversity_and_Behavioral_and_Emotional_Problems_in_3_Year_Olds_Results_from_the_Generation_R_Study_/772862", "title"=>"Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in 3 Year Olds: Results from the Generation R Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-08-14 03:43:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170176"], "description"=>"<p>Models include 60 levels (neighborhoods). Variance (SE) null model 0.39 (0.14); p-value<0.001.</p><p>Model 1 is adjusted for child gender, age, maternal age, marital status, parity, maternal educational level, family income Model 2 is adjusted for neighborhood wealth and urbanity level.</p><p>Model 3 is the fully-adjusted model.</p>a<p>Models 1 and 3 repeated with maternal ethnic background categorized as Dutch vs. Non-Dutch.</p>*<p>p<0.05.</p>**<p>p<0.01.</p>***<p>p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Child psychiatry", "pediatrics", "Child development", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Child health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Sociology", "social policy", "logistic", "regression", "maternal-reported", "cbcl", "problems"], "article_id"=>772859, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ilse J. E. Flink", "Rick G. Prins", "Johan J. P. Mackenbach", "Vincent W. Jaddoe", "Albert Hofman", "Frank C. Verhulst", "Henning Tiemeier", "Hein Raat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070070.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multilevel_logistic_regression_models_of_neighborhood_ethnic_diversity_and_ethnic_background_on_maternal_reported_CBCL_Total_Problems_N_8202_8202_3076_/772859", "title"=>"Multilevel logistic regression models of neighborhood ethnic diversity and ethnic background on maternal-reported CBCL Total Problems (N = 3076).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-14 03:43:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170177"], "description"=>"<p>Models include 60 levels (neighborhoods). Variance (SE) null model 0.39 (0.14); p-value<0.001.</p><p>OR's are adjusted for child gender, age, maternal age, marital status, parity, maternal educational level, family income, neighborhood wealth and urbanity level.</p><p>* p<0.05.</p>**<p>p<0.01.</p>***<p>p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Child psychiatry", "pediatrics", "Child development", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Child health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Sociology", "social policy", "maternal", "maternal-reported", "cbcl", "problems"], "article_id"=>772860, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ilse J. E. Flink", "Rick G. Prins", "Johan J. P. Mackenbach", "Vincent W. Jaddoe", "Albert Hofman", "Frank C. Verhulst", "Henning Tiemeier", "Hein Raat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070070.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interaction_between_maternal_ethnic_background_and_neighborhood_ethnic_diversity_on_maternal_reported_CBCL_Total_Problems_N_8202_8202_3076_/772860", "title"=>"Interaction between maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity on maternal-reported CBCL Total Problems (N = 3076).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-14 03:43:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170175"], "description"=>"<p>Flowchart of the study population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Child psychiatry", "pediatrics", "Child development", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Child health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Sociology", "social policy"], "article_id"=>772858, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Ilse J. E. Flink", "Rick G. Prins", "Johan J. P. Mackenbach", "Vincent W. Jaddoe", "Albert Hofman", "Frank C. Verhulst", "Henning Tiemeier", "Hein Raat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070070.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flowchart_of_the_study_population_/772858", "title"=>"Flowchart of the study population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-14 03:43:20"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Mental health and psychiatry", "average_usage"=>[282, 468, 596, 706, 804, 895, 1000, 1081, 1175, 1272, 1356, 1445, 1531]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Public and occupational health", "average_usage"=>[291, 491, 610, 723, 817, 906, 991, 1071, 1153, 1238, 1324, 1411, 1478]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Human geography", "average_usage"=>[260, 446, 573, 690, 792, 899, 988, 1069, 1160, 1252, 1311, 1380, 1445]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Sociology", "average_usage"=>[310, 523, 656, 780, 900, 1024, 1120, 1219, 1308, 1395, 1468, 1570, 1642]}]}
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