Discordance in CD4+T-Cell Levels and Viral Loads with Co-Occurrence of Elevated Peripheral TNF-α and IL-4 in Newly Diagnosed HIV-TB Co-Infected Cases
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Discordance in CD4+T-Cell Levels and Viral Loads with Co-Occurrence of Elevated Peripheral TNF-α and IL-4 in Newly Diagnosed HIV-TB Co-Infected Cases", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ronald", "last_name"=>"Benjamin", "scopus_author_id"=>"55810376200"}, {"first_name"=>"Atoshi", "last_name"=>"Banerjee", "scopus_author_id"=>"53881062700"}, {"first_name"=>"Sharada Ramaseri", "last_name"=>"Sunder", "scopus_author_id"=>"53064773200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sumanlatha", "last_name"=>"Gaddam", "scopus_author_id"=>"57088231000"}, {"first_name"=>"Vijaya Lakshmi", "last_name"=>"Valluri", "scopus_author_id"=>"23993407200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sharmistha", "last_name"=>"Banerjee", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404545507"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84881004224", "pmid"=>"23936398", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"369474161", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881004224", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0070250"}, "id"=>"e29f4745-c89a-3ead-964b-39d2ad33f8cc", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Cytokines are the hallmark of immune response to different pathogens and often dictate the disease outcome. HIV infection and tuberculosis (TB) are more destructive when confronted together than either alone. Clinical data related to the immune status of HIV-TB patients before the initiation of any drug therapy is not well documented. This study aimed to collect the baseline information pertaining to the immune status of HIV-TB co-infected patients and correlate the same with CD4+T cell levels and viral loads at the time of diagnosis prior to any drug therapy.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the cytokines, CD4+T cell levels and viral loads to determine the immune environment in HIV-TB co-infection. The study involved four categories namely, Healthy controls (n=57), TB infected (n=57), HIV infected (n=59) and HIV-TB co-infected (n=57) patients. The multi-partite comparison and correlation between cytokines, CD4+T-cell levels and viral loads prior to drug therapy, showed an altered TH1 and TH2 response, as indicated by the cytokine profiles and skewed IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio. Inadequate CD4+T cell counts in HIV-TB patients did not correlate with high viral loads and vice-versa. When compared to HIV category, 34% of HIV-TB patients had concurrent high plasma levels of IL-4 and TNF-α at the time of diagnosis. TB relapse was observed in 5 of these HIV-TB co-infected patients who also displayed high IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio.\\n\\nCONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: With these studies, we infer (i) CD4+T-cell levels as baseline criteria to report the disease progression in terms of viral load in HIV-TB co-infected patients can be misleading and (ii) co-occurrence of high TNF-α and IL-4 levels along with a high ratio of IFN-γ/IL-10, prior to drug therapy, may increase the susceptibility of HIV-TB co-infected patients to hyper-inflammation and TB relapse.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/discordance-cd4tcell-levels-viral-loads-cooccurrence-elevated-peripheral-tnf%CE%B1-il4-newly-diagnosed-hi", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84881004224"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84881004224?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84881004224&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84881004224&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84881004224", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84881004224", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84881004224", "dc:title"=>"Discordance in CD4+T-Cell Levels and Viral Loads with Co-Occurrence of Elevated Peripheral TNF-α and IL-4 in Newly Diagnosed HIV-TB Co-Infected Cases", "dc:creator"=>"Benjamin R.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-08-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"1 August 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0070250", "citedby-count"=>"12", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Hyderabad", "affiliation-city"=>"Hyderabad", "affiliation-country"=>"India"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23936398", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e70250", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0070250", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"12", "html_views"=>"403"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"132"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"0"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1139750"], "description"=>"<p>The threshold for significance was set at p≤0.05. Bars above and below the plots represent the statistical significance (p value) between the groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Immune physiology", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "immunity", "inflammation", "immunopathology", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Microbial pathogens", "Clinical immunology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "General pathology", "molecular pathology", "Clinical pathology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV clinical manifestations", "plasma", "il-12", "il-2", "hiv-tb"], "article_id"=>761909, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ronald Benjamin", "Atoshi Banerjee", "Sharada Ramaseri Sunder", "Sumanlatha Gaddam", "Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri", "Sharmistha Banerjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070250.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Blood_plasma_levels_of_cytokines_Box_plots_representing_blood_plasma_levels_of_A_IL_12_p70_B_IL_2_in_the_Healthy_TB_HIV_and_HIV_TB_categories_/761909", "title"=>"Blood plasma levels of cytokines Box plots representing blood plasma levels of (A) IL-12 p70, (B) IL-2 in the Healthy, TB, HIV and HIV-TB categories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-01 02:58:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1139749"], "description"=>"<p>Box plots representing (A) comparison of plasma IFN-γ levels among Healthy, TB, HIV and HIV-TB categories. (B) Plasma levels of IFN-γ in HIV and HIV-TB patients categorized on the basis of low CD4+T cells (≤200/mm<sup>3</sup>) and high CD4+T cells (>200/mm<sup>3</sup>). (C) Plasma levels of IFN-γ for HIV and HIV-TB patients with low viral load (VL≤10<sup>5</sup> IU/ml) and high viral load (VL>10<sup>5 </sup>IU/ml). The threshold for significance was set at p≤0.05. Bars above the plots represent the statistical significance (p value) between the groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Immune physiology", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "immunity", "inflammation", "immunopathology", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Microbial pathogens", "Clinical immunology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "General pathology", "molecular pathology", "Clinical pathology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV clinical manifestations", "hiv-tb", "subjects", "viral"], "article_id"=>761908, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ronald Benjamin", "Atoshi Banerjee", "Sharada Ramaseri Sunder", "Sumanlatha Gaddam", "Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri", "Sharmistha Banerjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070250.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plasma_levels_of_IFN_947_in_Healthy_TB_HIV_and_HIV_TB_subjects_and_its_relation_to_CD4_T_cell_and_viral_load_under_HIV_and_HIV_TB_categories_/761908", "title"=>"Plasma levels of IFN-γ in Healthy, TB, HIV and HIV-TB subjects and its relation to CD4+T cell and viral load under HIV and HIV-TB categories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-01 02:58:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1139746"], "description"=>"<p>Box plots representing (A) the distribution of CD4+T cell/mm<sup>3</sup> of blood in Healthy, HIV and HIV-TB. (B) The distribution of viral RNA copies measured in terms of IU/ml of sample for the HIV and HIV-TB patients. (C) Analyses of the CD4+T cell count of HIV and HIV-TB samples with low viral load (VL≤10<sup>5</sup> IU/ml) and high viral load (VL>10<sup>5 </sup>IU/ml). The threshold for significance was set at p≤0.05. Bars above the plots represent the statistical significance (p value) between the groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Immune physiology", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "immunity", "inflammation", "immunopathology", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Microbial pathogens", "Clinical immunology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "General pathology", "molecular pathology", "Clinical pathology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV clinical manifestations", "cells", "viral", "indicators"], "article_id"=>761905, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ronald Benjamin", "Atoshi Banerjee", "Sharada Ramaseri Sunder", "Sumanlatha Gaddam", "Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri", "Sharmistha Banerjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070250.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_of_CD4_T_cells_and_viral_load_as_indicators_of_HIV_progression_/761905", "title"=>"Correlation of CD4+T cells and viral load as indicators of HIV progression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-01 02:58:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1139752"], "description"=>"<p>The threshold for significance was set at p≤0.05. Bars above the plots represent the statistical significance (p value) between the groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Immune physiology", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "immunity", "inflammation", "immunopathology", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Microbial pathogens", "Clinical immunology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "General pathology", "molecular pathology", "Clinical pathology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV clinical manifestations", "anti-inflammatory", "plasma", "il-10", "hiv-tb"], "article_id"=>761911, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ronald Benjamin", "Atoshi Banerjee", "Sharada Ramaseri Sunder", "Sumanlatha Gaddam", "Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri", "Sharmistha Banerjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070250.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_anti_inflammatory_cytokines_Box_plots_representing_plasma_levels_of_A_IL_4_B_IL_10_C_Ratio_of_IFN_947_IL_10_in_Healthy_TB_HIV_and_HIV_TB_categories_/761911", "title"=>"Comparison of anti-inflammatory cytokines Box plots representing plasma levels of (A) IL-4, (B) IL-10 (C) Ratio of IFN-γ/IL-10 in Healthy, TB, HIV and HIV-TB categories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-01 02:58:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1139753"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Cytokines are the hallmark of immune response to different pathogens and often dictate the disease outcome. HIV infection and tuberculosis (TB) are more destructive when confronted together than either alone. Clinical data related to the immune status of HIV-TB patients before the initiation of any drug therapy is not well documented. This study aimed to collect the baseline information pertaining to the immune status of HIV-TB co-infected patients and correlate the same with CD4+T cell levels and viral loads at the time of diagnosis prior to any drug therapy.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>We analyzed the cytokines, CD4+T cell levels and viral loads to determine the immune environment in HIV-TB co-infection. The study involved four categories namely, Healthy controls (n = 57), TB infected (n = 57), HIV infected (n = 59) and HIV-TB co-infected (n = 57) patients. The multi-partite comparison and correlation between cytokines, CD4+T-cell levels and viral loads prior to drug therapy, showed an altered TH1 and TH2 response, as indicated by the cytokine profiles and skewed IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio. Inadequate CD4+T cell counts in HIV-TB patients did not correlate with high viral loads and <i>vice-versa</i>. When compared to HIV category, 34% of HIV-TB patients had concurrent high plasma levels of IL-4 and TNF-α at the time of diagnosis. TB relapse was observed in 5 of these HIV-TB co-infected patients who also displayed high IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio.</p><p>Conclusion/Significance</p><p>With these studies, we infer (i) CD4+T-cell levels as baseline criteria to report the disease progression in terms of viral load in HIV-TB co-infected patients can be misleading and (ii) co-occurrence of high TNF-α and IL-4 levels along with a high ratio of IFN-γ/IL-10, prior to drug therapy, may increase the susceptibility of HIV-TB co-infected patients to hyper-inflammation and TB relapse.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Immune physiology", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "immunity", "inflammation", "immunopathology", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Microbial pathogens", "Clinical immunology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "General pathology", "molecular pathology", "Clinical pathology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV clinical manifestations", "viral", "loads", "co-occurrence", "elevated", "peripheral", "il-4", "diagnosed", "hiv-tb", "co-infected"], "article_id"=>761912, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ronald Benjamin", "Atoshi Banerjee", "Sharada Ramaseri Sunder", "Sumanlatha Gaddam", "Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri", "Sharmistha Banerjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070250", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discordance_in_CD4_T_Cell_Levels_and_Viral_Loads_with_Co_Occurrence_of_Elevated_Peripheral_TNF_945_and_IL_4_in_Newly_Diagnosed_HIV_TB_Co_Infected_Cases_/761912", "title"=>"Discordance in CD4+T-Cell Levels and Viral Loads with Co-Occurrence of Elevated Peripheral TNF-α and IL-4 in Newly Diagnosed HIV-TB Co-Infected Cases", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-01 02:58:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1139748"], "description"=>"<p>Box plots representing (A) comparison of plasma TNF-α levels between Healthy, TB, HIV and HIV-TB categories. (B) Plasma levels of TNF-α in HIV patients categorized on the basis of low CD4+T cells (≤200/mm<sup>3</sup>) and high CD4+T cells (>200/mm<sup>3</sup>). (C) Plasma levels of TNF-α in HIV-TB patients categorized on the basis of low CD4+T cells (≤200/mm<sup>3</sup>) and high CD4+T cells (>200/mm<sup>3</sup>). (D) Plasma levels of TNF-α in HIV and HIV-TB patients whose CD4+T cells are below ≤200/mm<sup>3</sup> of blood. (E) Plasma levels of TNF-α in HIV-TB patients with low viral load (VL≤10<sup>5</sup> IU/ml) and high viral load (VL>10<sup>5</sup> IU/ml). The threshold for significance was set at p≤0.05. Bars above and below the plots represent the statistical significance (p value) between the groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Immune physiology", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "immunity", "inflammation", "immunopathology", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Microbial pathogens", "Clinical immunology", "Diagnostic medicine", "pathology", "General pathology", "molecular pathology", "Clinical pathology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV clinical manifestations", "cells", "viral"], "article_id"=>761907, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ronald Benjamin", "Atoshi Banerjee", "Sharada Ramaseri Sunder", "Sumanlatha Gaddam", "Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri", "Sharmistha Banerjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070250.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plasma_levels_of_TNF_945_in_relation_to_CD4_T_cells_and_viral_load_/761907", "title"=>"Plasma levels of TNF-α in relation to CD4+T cells and viral load.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-01 02:58:27"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"69", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 440, 562, 666, 765, 856, 944, 1028, 1112, 1198, 1282, 1362, 1430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 428]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 441, 564, 668, 769, 859, 948, 1034, 1117, 1202, 1290, 1368, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Hematology", "average_usage"=>[238, 424, 545, 650, 749, 839, 926, 1006, 1090, 1167, 1243, 1316, 1380]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[297, 523, 655, 765, 866, 971, 1070, 1159, 1256, 1337, 1424, 1496, 1568]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[267, 466, 592, 709, 806, 901, 989, 1075, 1162, 1254, 1342, 1424, 1486]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Tropical diseases", "average_usage"=>[327, 579, 720, 841, 955, 1064, 1151, 1250, 1336, 1437, 1514, 1586, 1677]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts