The Power of Auditory-Motor Synchronization in Sports: Enhancing Running Performance by Coupling Cadence with the Right Beats
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{"title"=>"The Power of Auditory-Motor Synchronization in Sports: Enhancing Running Performance by Coupling Cadence with the Right Beats", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert Jan", "last_name"=>"Bood", "scopus_author_id"=>"55818372100"}, {"first_name"=>"Marijn", "last_name"=>"Nijssen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198816588"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"van der Kamp", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188978610"}, {"first_name"=>"Melvyn", "last_name"=>"Roerdink", "scopus_author_id"=>"23010166500"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23951000", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0070758", "sgr"=>"84881360926", "isbn"=>"1932-6203; 1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881360926", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369535394"}, "id"=>"537440d6-c7de-3286-aabf-46c7e2b7fd9a", "abstract"=>"Acoustic stimuli, like music and metronomes, are often used in sports. Adjusting movement tempo to acoustic stimuli (i.e., auditory-motor synchronization) may be beneficial for sports performance. However, music also possesses motivational qualities that may further enhance performance. Our objective was to examine the relative effects of auditory-motor synchronization and the motivational impact of acoustic stimuli on running performance. To this end, 19 participants ran to exhaustion on a treadmill in 1) a control condition without acoustic stimuli, 2) a metronome condition with a sequence of beeps matching participants' cadence (synchronization), and 3) a music condition with synchronous motivational music matched to participants' cadence (synchronization+motivation). Conditions were counterbalanced and measurements were taken on separate days. As expected, time to exhaustion was significantly longer with acoustic stimuli than without. Unexpectedly, however, time to exhaustion did not differ between metronome and motivational music conditions, despite differences in motivational quality. Motivational music slightly reduced perceived exertion of sub-maximal running intensity and heart rates of (near-)maximal running intensity. The beat of the stimuli -which was most salient during the metronome condition- helped runners to maintain a consistent pace by coupling cadence to the prescribed tempo. Thus, acoustic stimuli may have enhanced running performance because runners worked harder as a result of motivational aspects (most pronounced with motivational music) and more efficiently as a result of auditory-motor synchronization (most notable with metronome beeps). These findings imply that running to motivational music with a very prominent and consistent beat matched to the runner's cadence will likely yield optimal effects because it helps to elevate physiological effort at a high perceived exertion, whereas the consistent and correct cadence induced by auditory-motor synchronization helps to optimize running economy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/power-auditorymotor-synchronization-sports-enhancing-running-performance-coupling-cadence-right-beat", "reader_count"=>113, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145979"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars represent the standard error while asterisks indicate significant differences across conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Sensory systems", "Auditory system", "Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Motor systems", "Sports and exercise medicine", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "Experimental psychology", "seconds", "cadence", "consistency", "exhaustion", "metronome", "motivational"], "article_id"=>766754, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert Jan Bood", "Marijn Nijssen", "John van der Kamp", "Melvyn Roerdink"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070758.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TTE_in_seconds_A_and_cadence_consistency_in_steps_min_B_data_of_the_exhaustion_phase_for_control_black_metronome_dark_gray_and_motivational_music_light_gray_conditions_/766754", "title"=>"TTE in seconds (A) and cadence consistency in steps/min (B) data of the exhaustion phase for control (black), metronome (dark gray), and motivational music (light gray) conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:18:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145981"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars represent the standard error. RPE and heart rate of each segment differed significantly from each other.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Sensory systems", "Auditory system", "Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Motor systems", "Sports and exercise medicine", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "Experimental psychology", "exertion", "1-minute", "segments", "exhaustion", "metronome", "motivational"], "article_id"=>766756, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert Jan Bood", "Marijn Nijssen", "John van der Kamp", "Melvyn Roerdink"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070758.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Perceived_exertion_A_and_heart_rate_B_data_for_the_first_central_and_final_1_minute_segments_of_the_exhaustion_phase_for_control_black_metronome_dark_gray_and_motivational_music_light_gray_conditions_/766756", "title"=>"Perceived exertion (A) and heart rate (B) data for the first, central, and final 1-minute segments of the exhaustion phase for control (black), metronome (dark gray), and motivational music (light gray) conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:18:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145982"], "description"=>"<p>The ‘hotter’ the color, the more prominent the beat. (A) Spectrogram of the metronome, showing a constant beat. (B) Spectrogram of the motivational music track ‘He’s A Pirate’ by DJ Tiësto, where the tempo is not as constant, readily apparent, and prominent throughout the song as the beat in the metronome.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Sensory systems", "Auditory system", "Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Motor systems", "Sports and exercise medicine", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "Experimental psychology", "acoustic", "140", "indicated", "dashed"], "article_id"=>766757, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert Jan Bood", "Marijn Nijssen", "John van der Kamp", "Melvyn Roerdink"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070758.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectrograms_of_acoustic_stimuli_both_at_140_bpm_as_indicated_by_the_dashed_white_line_/766757", "title"=>"Spectrograms of acoustic stimuli, both at 140 bpm, as indicated by the dashed white line.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:18:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145984"], "description"=>"<p><b>bpm</b> indicates the song’s tempo in beats per minute as verified using Virtual DJ Pro (Atomix Productions), <b>BMRI-2</b> scores the song’s motivational quality, <b>#selected</b> represents the number of times that the song was selected by participants and <b>@bpm</b> indicates the average played tempo of the song to match participants’ cadence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Sensory systems", "Auditory system", "Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Motor systems", "Sports and exercise medicine", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "Experimental psychology", "motivational"], "article_id"=>766759, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Robert Jan Bood", "Marijn Nijssen", "John van der Kamp", "Melvyn Roerdink"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070758.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performer_and_song_title_of_the_motivational_music_Top_5_/766759", "title"=>"Performer and song title of the motivational music Top 5.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:18:57"}

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