Are Namibian “Fairy Circles” the Consequence of Self-Organizing Spatial Vegetation Patterning?
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{"title"=>"Are Namibian \"Fairy Circles\" the Consequence of Self-Organizing Spatial Vegetation Patterning?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael D.", "last_name"=>"Cramer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102304265"}, {"first_name"=>"Nichole N.", "last_name"=>"Barger", "scopus_author_id"=>"9236113800"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84881578039", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0070876", "pui"=>"369579612", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23976962", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881578039"}, "id"=>"d91cbf5d-a126-3cf7-b78e-7ff8db5e7a50", "abstract"=>"Causes of over-dispersed barren \"fairy circles\" that are often surrounded by ca. 0.5 m tall peripheral grasses in a matrix of shorter (ca. 0.2 m tall) grasses in Namibian grasslands remain mysterious. It was hypothesized that the fairy circles are the consequence of self-organizing spatial vegetation patterning arising from resource competition and facilitation. We examined the edaphic properties of fairy circles and variation in fairy circle size, density and landscape occupancy (% land surface) with edaphic properties and water availability at a local scale (<50 km) and with climate and vegetation characteristics at a regional scale. Soil moisture in the barren fairy circles declines from the center towards the periphery and is inversely correlated with soil organic carbon, possibly indicating that the peripheral grass roots access soil moisture that persists into the dry season within fairy circles. Fairy circle landscape occupancy is negatively correlated with precipitation and soil [N], consistent with fairy circles being the product of resource-competition. Regional fairy circle presence/absence is highly predictable using an empirical model that includes narrow ranges of vegetation biomass, precipitation and temperature seasonality as predictor variables, indicating that fairy circles are likely a climate-dependent emergent phenomenon. This dependence of fairy circle occurrence on climate explains why fairy circles in some locations may appear and disappear over time. Fairy circles are only over-dispersed at high landscape occupancies, indicating that inter-circle competition may determine their spacing. We conclude that fairy circles are likely to be an emergent arid-grassland phenomenon that forms as a consequence of peripheral grass resource-competition and that the consequent barren circle may provide a resource-reservoir essential for the survival of the larger peripheral grasses and provides a habitat for fossicking fauna.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/namibian-fairy-circles-consequence-selforganizing-spatial-vegetation-patterning", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "South Africa"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170899"], "description"=>"<p>Values are the mean ± SE (with the SE as a percent of mean in parentheses), median, and both the 5 and 95 percentiles. The characteristics are the density of fairy circles, fairy circle landscape occupancy (% land surface area), individual fairy circle area, individual fairy circle diameters, the periphery to periphery distances and fairy circle dispersion (R).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "fairy", "circles", "established"], "article_id"=>773403, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Density_size_and_distribution_characteristics_of_fairy_circles_across_the_established_range_Fig_S1_n_82_sites_/773403", "title"=>"Density, size and distribution characteristics of fairy circles across the established range (Fig. S1, n = 82 sites).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170898"], "description"=>"<p>The variables are mean annual precipitation (MAP), the 1<sup>st</sup> principal component of the enhanced vegetation index (1<sup>st</sup> PC of EVI) and temperature seasonality (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S3</a>). The relative interaction sizes (in parentheses) for two-way interactions between these variables were calculated using BRT analyses. The ranges are between the 5 and 95 percentiles of sites sampled either with or without fairy circles (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "influences", "predictor", "variables", "retained", "simplified", "brt", "fairy"], "article_id"=>773402, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_relative_influences_of_the_three_predictor_variables_that_were_retained_in_the_simplified_BRT_model_for_fairy_circle_FC_presence_absence_/773402", "title"=>"The relative influences of the three predictor variables that were retained in the simplified BRT model for fairy circle (FC) presence/absence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170879"], "description"=>"<p>Site overview (A); a 9.5 m diameter fairy circle being measured (B; the persons in the photograph have given written informed consent, as outlined in the PLOS consent form, to publication of their photograph); grasses do invade the center of some fairy circles, but by this time in the dry season they were mostly dead (C); evidence of surface runoff across a fairy circle following rain (D; photograph by Ann Scott).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "circles", "namibrand"], "article_id"=>773384, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fairy_circles_close_to_8220_Jagkop_8221_8722_24_9770_176_15_8982_176_on_the_NamibRand_Nature_reserve_June_2012_/773384", "title"=>"Fairy circles close to “Jagkop” (−24.9770°, 15.8982°) on the NamibRand Nature reserve (June 2012).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170893"], "description"=>"<p>Variation in fairy circle (FC) dispersion (R) with landscape occupancy based on aerial photograph analysis (black points) and ground survey (red points). Closed symbols indicate significantly over-dispersed R-values (Z-test, P<0.05). Fitted line: R = 1.02+0.25Log(FC area). R = 1 for random distributions and 2.15 for maximum dispersion in a hexagonal lattice <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876-Clark1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "fairy"], "article_id"=>773397, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dispersion_of_fairy_circles_/773397", "title"=>"Dispersion of fairy circles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170892"], "description"=>"<p>Landscape occupancy was based on aerial photograph analysis (black points) and ground survey (NamibRand Nature reserve site average; red point). MAP was based on Bioclim data (<a href=\"http://www.worldclim.org\" target=\"_blank\">www.worldclim.org</a>; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876-Hijmans1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>), which is averaged over 1950–2000 and differs from the MAP collected within the reserve (2006–2011). The broken line represents the 90<sup>th</sup> quantile piecewise non-linear regression line <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876-Koenker1\" target=\"_blank\">[45]</a> to define the upper limit of landscape occupancy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "fairy", "occupancy", "precipitation"], "article_id"=>773396, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_in_regional_fairy_circle_FC_landscape_occupancy_with_mean_annual_precipitation_MAP_/773396", "title"=>"Variation in regional fairy circle (FC) landscape occupancy with mean annual precipitation (MAP).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170888"], "description"=>"<p>Average fairy circle area (A, n = 20), periphery to periphery distances between nearest neighbor fairy circles (B, n = 16), and the fairy circles (FC) landscape occupancy (C, n = 20) were significantly related to matrix soil [N] (<0.3 m depth). Coefficients of determination (r<sup>2</sup>) and probability values (P) are shown. Four sampled sites (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S1</a>) within the reserve had no fairy circles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "fairy", "morphological", "namibrand"], "article_id"=>773393, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_of_fairy_circle_morphological_properties_with_soil_total_N_within_the_NamibRand_Nature_reserve_/773393", "title"=>"Variation of fairy circle morphological properties with soil total [N] within the NamibRand Nature reserve.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170887"], "description"=>"<p>Variation with distance from the fairy circle center of soil moisture (A) and organic C (B) weight-summed over sampled depths (mean ± SE; n ≤5). The co-variation of soil moisture and soil organic C (C) is shown with the coefficient of determination (r<sup>2</sup>) and probability value (P) for the subset of data from the barren fairy circle interior.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "moisture", "carbon", "fairy", "circles"], "article_id"=>773392, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Soil_moisture_and_organic_carbon_variation_across_fairy_circles_and_into_matrix_/773392", "title"=>"Soil moisture and organic carbon variation across fairy circles and into matrix.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170901", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170902", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170904"], "description"=>"<div><p>Causes of over-dispersed barren “fairy circles” that are often surrounded by <i>ca.</i> 0.5 m tall peripheral grasses in a matrix of shorter (<i>ca.</i> 0.2 m tall) grasses in Namibian grasslands remain mysterious. It was hypothesized that the fairy circles are the consequence of self-organizing spatial vegetation patterning arising from resource competition and facilitation. We examined the edaphic properties of fairy circles and variation in fairy circle size, density and landscape occupancy (% land surface) with edaphic properties and water availability at a local scale (<50 km) and with climate and vegetation characteristics at a regional scale. Soil moisture in the barren fairy circles declines from the center towards the periphery and is inversely correlated with soil organic carbon, possibly indicating that the peripheral grass roots access soil moisture that persists into the dry season within fairy circles. Fairy circle landscape occupancy is negatively correlated with precipitation and soil [N], consistent with fairy circles being the product of resource-competition. Regional fairy circle presence/absence is highly predictable using an empirical model that includes narrow ranges of vegetation biomass, precipitation and temperature seasonality as predictor variables, indicating that fairy circles are likely a climate-dependent emergent phenomenon. This dependence of fairy circle occurrence on climate explains why fairy circles in some locations may appear and disappear over time. Fairy circles are only over-dispersed at high landscape occupancies, indicating that inter-circle competition may determine their spacing. We conclude that fairy circles are likely to be an emergent arid-grassland phenomenon that forms as a consequence of peripheral grass resource-competition and that the consequent barren circle may provide a resource-reservoir essential for the survival of the larger peripheral grasses and provides a habitat for fossicking fauna.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "namibian", "self-organizing", "spatial", "vegetation"], "article_id"=>773405, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Are_Namibian_8220_Fairy_Circles_8221_the_Consequence_of_Self_Organizing_Spatial_Vegetation_Patterning_/773405", "title"=>"Are Namibian “Fairy Circles” the Consequence of Self-Organizing Spatial Vegetation Patterning?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170897"], "description"=>"<p>Values are mean ± SE (n = 5) and the P values from Student's t-tests are indicated in bold where significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "grown", "53", "fairy", "circles"], "article_id"=>773401, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biomass_g_dry_weight_of_wheat_grown_for_53_d_in_surface_soil_lt_0_3_m_depth_collected_from_the_center_of_fairy_circles_or_the_matrix_/773401", "title"=>"Biomass (g dry weight) of wheat grown for 53 d in surface soil (<0.3 m depth) collected from the center of fairy circles or the matrix.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170881"], "description"=>"<p>Fairy circles are hypothesized to result from competitive exclusion of grasses on the fairy circles and facilitative access of peripheral species to both fairy circle and matrix water/nutrient resources. Lack of vegetation results in increased soil moisture within the circles. Competition, particularly in surface soils, may compromise grass growth on the fairy circles restricting root development and resulting in death of grasses that do invade the fairy circles. Increased faunal activity due to higher circle soil moisture and lack of propagule establishment may also contribute to maintenance of the barren circles <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876-Juergens1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876-Picker1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>. Arrows show water flux and consequent nutrient mass-flow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876-Cramer1\" target=\"_blank\">[32]</a> from the matrix and fairy circle “reservoir” towards deep peripheral grass roots. Nominal sizes of grasses, rooting depths (left axis) and soil moisture variation (blue line, right axis) with distance from fairy circle center are derived from data presented (Fig. 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "interactions", "fairy"], "article_id"=>773386, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothesized_interactions_resulting_in_fairy_circle_formation_/773386", "title"=>"Hypothesized interactions resulting in fairy circle formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170895"], "description"=>"<p>The black points indicate 80 sites across Namibia and into southern Angola measured from aerial photographs. Sites that were assessed by ground survey are shown in red. Coefficients of determination (r<sup>2</sup>) and probability values (P) are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "cumulative", "circumference", "fairy", "circles", "hectare", "occupancy"], "article_id"=>773399, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_in_the_cumulative_circumference_length_of_fairy_circles_FC_per_hectare_with_landscape_occupancy_of_fairy_circles_/773399", "title"=>"Variation in the cumulative circumference length of fairy circles (FC) per hectare with landscape occupancy of fairy circles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170896"], "description"=>"<p>Values are mean ± SE (n = 11 sites) and the P values from Student's t tests are indicated in bold where significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "sampled", "namibrand", "centers", "fairy", "circles", "points", "matrix", "adjacent"], "article_id"=>773400, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_soil_properties_lt_0_3_m_depth_sampled_within_the_NamibRand_Nature_reserve_between_the_centers_of_fairy_circles_and_the_center_points_in_the_matrix_between_adjacent_fairy_circles_/773400", "title"=>"Comparison of soil properties (<0.3 m depth) sampled within the NamibRand Nature reserve between the centers of fairy circles and the center points in the matrix between adjacent fairy circles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170894"], "description"=>"<p>Landscape occupancy (FC area as a percentage land surface area) variation with fairy circle density (A), average individual fairy circle area (B) and the spacing between fairy circle peripheries (C). Data is based on aerial photograph analysis of 80 sites across Namibia, and into southern Angola (black points) and sites assessed by ground survey (red points). Coefficients of determination (r<sup>2</sup>) and probability values (P) for regression lines are shown where significant (P<0.05). Broken lines represent 90<sup>th</sup> quantile piecewise non-linear regression <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876-Koenker1\" target=\"_blank\">[45]</a> to define the upper limit of landscape occupancy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "fairy"], "article_id"=>773398, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_in_regional_fairy_circle_FC_landscape_occupancy_/773398", "title"=>"Variation in regional fairy circle (FC) landscape occupancy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170890"], "description"=>"<p>Black points indicate sites with fairy circles used in model development. The corresponding layer in Google earth (not shown) was used to search for fairy circles outside the ranges of those used in model development. The sites where additional fairy circles were discovered are marked with open symbols. The Namibian borders are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "fairy", "arbitrary", "simplified", "brt"], "article_id"=>773395, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predictions_of_fairy_circle_location_likelihood_on_an_arbitrary_scale_from_the_simplified_BRT_model_AUC_8202_8202_0_95_/773395", "title"=>"Predictions of fairy circle location likelihood (on an arbitrary scale) from the simplified BRT model (AUC  = 0.95).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1170889"], "description"=>"<p>Site mean annual precipitation (MAP) was estimated from multiple linear regression (latitude and longitude) against data from 19 rainfall collectors in the region. Soil total [N] (A, n = 20), average fairy circle (FC) area (B, n = 16), and landscape occupancy by fairy circles (C, n = 20) were significantly related to MAP. Coefficients of determination (r<sup>2</sup>) and probability values (P) are shown. Four sampled sites (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876#pone.0070876.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S1</a>) within the reserve had no fairy circles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Niche construction", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem engineering", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Ecophysiology", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Plant science", "fairy", "morphological", "precipitation", "namibrand"], "article_id"=>773394, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael D. Cramer", "Nichole N. Barger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_of_soil_total_N_and_fairy_circle_morphological_properties_with_precipitation_within_the_NamibRand_Nature_reserve_/773394", "title"=>"Variation of soil total [N] and fairy circle morphological properties with precipitation within the NamibRand Nature reserve.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-15 02:17:16"}

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Relative Metric

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